Margaret, queen and patron saint of Scotland, born in Hungary in 1046, died in Edinburgh. Nov. 17. 1093. She was the niece of Edward the Confessor, and daughter of Edward, son of Edmund Ironside. and of Agatha, daughter of the emperor Henry III. With her brother Edgar Atheling and her -ister Christina she was reared at the court of Hungary till 1056. when she returned to England. She tied to Scotland in 1070 with Edgar, and was received at Dunfermline by King Malcolm Can-more, whose wife she became soon afterward. Margaret was gentle, pious, learned, and accomplished, and anxious to introduce among the people of Scotland a higher civilization. She enlightened her husband's mind and soothed his fierce spirit; invited the Scottish clergy and monks to a council, in which she prevailed on them to adopt the Roman manner of celebrating Easter: and put into practice several wise regulations for the instruction of their flocks. She also prevailed on the king to encourage commercial intercourse with other countries. She regulated the royal house-hold, introducing the ceremonial of European courts. She was lavish in her charities to the poor, and founded a number of churches, working with her own hands for their embellishment.

She bestowed her chief care on the education of her nine children, especially her six sons: the youngest, David I. was called by Buchanan "the perfect exemplar of a good king." and his sister. Queen Matilda or Maud, who founded London bridge, inherited all their mother's virtues. King Malcolm and Edward. his eldest son. having been slain before the walls of Alnwick. Nov. 13, 1093, the news of their death so affected the queen that she died four days afterward (though according to some she lingered till June 10, 1094). She was canonized in 1251 by Innocent IV.; and Clement X. in 1673 made her the patron saint of Scotland. Her feast is celebrated on Jnne 10. Sr. Margaret's chapel, built in her honor by David I., is still visited in the castle of Edinburgh. It was restored in 1853, and in the chance] are three stained-glass windows with portraits of the saint, Malcolm Canmore, and David I. The life of St. Margaret was written in Latin by her chaplain and confessor, Theodoric or Thierry, a monk of Durham; in Fiench by Lefebvre"(Douai, 1660); and by the Bollandists in Acta Sanctorum. - "St. Margaret's cup "or "draught" was a custom introduced by her into the Scottish court for the purpose of repressing drunkenness, and consisted in her tilling with her own hand a cup of choice wine, of which all partook, with the promise to drink no more.

After this grace was said. This custom became general in Great Britain. Flanders, and Germany, several popes attaching an indulgence to the "grace cup" on condition that it should be the last for that day. This was especially observed by guilds and brotherhoods at their yearly banquets, and many of these indulgenced cups, called "mazers." are still preserved.