Maria Lonisa Catharine Augusta, empress of Germany and queen of Prussia, born in Weimar, Sept. 30, 1811. She is the daughter of the grand duke Charles Frederick of Saxe-Weimar (died July 8, 1853), and her mother (died June 23, 1859) was a daughter of Paul I., emperor of Russia. She was brought up at the court of her grandfather Charles Augustus, the friend of Goethe, who speaks in one of his letters of the "many-sided and harmonious culture of the princess Augusta." Her elder sister Maria married Prince Charles of Prussia, and she married the prince's brother, the present Emperor William, June 11, 1829. She attended personally to the education of her two children, the present crown prince and the princess Louisa, since 185G grand duchess of Baden. She is much respected for her love of science, letters, and art, and for her benevolent disposition, displayed especially in 1870-'71 in labors for the relief of the wounded soldiers. In 1872 she founded at Charlottenburg a seminary for the education of orphan daughters of officers who fell in the war, and has designed buildings for the poor in Berlin after the plan of those of Mr. Peabody in London.