Maria Luigi Carlo Zenobio Salvatore Cherubini, an Italian composer, born in Florence, Sept. 8, 1760, died in Paris, March 15, 1842. He studied under his father, who was a pianist, and in 1769) under Bartolommeo and Ales-sandro Felici, also under Pietro Bizzari and Giuseppe Castrucci. In 1773 he produced a mass, which, with other of his compositions, attracted the attention of the grand duke Leopold, who enabled him to become a pupil of Sarti of Bologna, under whom he studied from 1778 to 1782. As early as 1780 he produced his first opera, Quinto Fabio, at Alessandria, and in 1784 he had already produced eight operas in the theatres of Italy. In that year he went to London, but in 1786 took up his residence in Paris. In 1785 he composed for the London Italian opera La finta principessa and Giulio Sabino; in 1788 at Turin his IJi-genia in Aulide; and in the winter of the same year he brought out his Demophoon, and in 1791 his Lodo'islca, at Paris. The latter opera established his fame, and was followed by Elisa, Medee, L'hotellerie portugaise, Les deux journees, Anacreon, and his ballet of Achille a Scyros. In 1806 he produced Faniska at Vienna; in 1809, Pimmalione at Paris; in 1813, Les Abencerrages; in 1814, Bayard a Mezieres, in conjunction with Cutel, Boieldieu, and Nicolo; in 1821, Blanche de Provence, in concert with Paer, Bo'ieldieu, Berton, and Kreutzer; and in 1833, All Baba. He excelled most in sacred music.
His celebrated mass in F for three voices, his grand Requiem, and his Messi sacre are the noblest monuments of his genius. Haydn and Beethoven pronounced him the greatest sacred composer of the age. From 1822 till his death he was director of the conservatory of Paris, with which he had been connected from the date of its foundation in 1795, and which is greatly indebted to him for its prosperity. Among his pupils were Bo'ieldieu, Auber, Carafa, and Halevy. Cherubini was never in favor with Napoleon, but from 1816 to 1830 he was superintendent of the music of the king. Adolphe Adam wrote of him after his death: "Contemporary of Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, and Rossini, Cherubini seems to have been placed by nature among those great geniuses as a moderator, whose wisdom and firmness were destined to counteract their eccentricities." - The most important of Cherubini's literary works is Methode de con-tre-point et de fugue, published in 1835, containing a summary of the lessons in strict composition which for several years he had given at the conservatory.
He was enthusiastically devoted to his profession, and his independence frequently manifested itself.