Maryland, one of the original states of the American Union, situated between lat. 37° 53' and 39° 44' N, and Ion. 75o 4' and 79° 33'

W., having an extreme length E. and W. of 196 m., and a breadth varying from less than 10 m. in the W. part to about 120 m.; area (not including Chesapeake bay, which comprises 2,835 sq. m.), 11,124 sq. m. It is bounded N. by Pennsylvania, on a parallel known as "Mason and Dixon's line," E. by Delaware and the Atlantic ocean, and W. by West Virginia. The remaining boundary is irregular. E. of Chesapeake bay it is bounded S. by Virginia, on a line E. from the mouth of the Pocomoke river to the Atlantic; W. of that bay it borders S. W. on Virginia and the District of Columbia, and S. on West Virginia, the boundary line (except where interrupted by the District of Columbia) following the Potomac river to the head of its North branch.

State Seal of Maryland.

State Seal of Maryland.

The state is divided into 23 counties, viz.: Allegany, Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Calvert, Caroline, Carroll, Cecil, Charles, Dorchester, Frederick, Garrett, Harford, Howard, Kent, Montgomery, Prince George's, Queen Anne, St. Mary's, Somerset, Talbot, Washington, Wicomico, and Worcester. There are five cities, viz.: Baltimore (pop. in 1870, 267,354), the chief commercial and manufacturing mart; Frederick (8,526); Cumberland (8,056), the depot of the mining region in the W. part of the state; Hagerstown (5,779); and Annapolis (5,744), the capital. Cambridge, Chesapeake City, Chestertown, Easton, Elkton, Ellicott City, Havre de Grace, Laurel, Newtown, Port Deposit, St. Michael's, Salisbury, Sharpsburg, Westminster, and Williamsport are towns having each more than 1,000 inhabitants. - The population of Maryland in 1660, according to McSherry ("History of Maryland," Baltimore, 1849), was 12,000 fin 1665, 15,000; in 1671, 20,000; in 1701, 25,000; in 1715, 30,000; in 1748, 130,000 (36,000 slaves); in 1756, 154,-188 (46,225 slaves); in 1761, 164,007 (49,675 blacks, mostly slaves); in 1775, 200,000; in 1782, 254,050, of whom 83,362 were slaves.

According to the federal census returns, it has been as follows:

CENSUS YEARS.

White persons.

Free colored.

Slaves.

Total population.

1790...........

208,649

8.043

103,036

319,728

1800...........

246,326

19,587

105,635

341,548

1810...........

235,117

33,927

111,502

380.546

1820...........

260,223

39,730

107.397

407.350

1830...........

291,108

52,938

102,994

447,040

1840...........

318.204

62,078

89,737

470,019

1850...........

417,943

74,723

90.368

583,034

1860...........

515,918

83,942

87,189

687,049

1870...........

605,497

175,391

....

780,894

Included in the last total are 2 Chinese and 4 Indians. In 1870 Maryland ranked 20th among the states in total population, a gain since 1860 of 13.66 per cent.; 18th in white population, gain 17'36 per cent.; 11th in colored population, gain 2.49 per cent. Of the total population, 697,482 were native and 83,412 foreign born. Of the natives, 629,882 were born in the state, 22,846 in Pennsylvania, 20,237'in Virginia and West Virginia, 6,876 in Delaware, 3,890 in New York, 1,853 in New Jersey, 1,212 in Massachusetts, and 1,163 in Ohio. There were 175,666 persons born in the state living in other states and territories. Of the foreigners, 47,045 were born in Germany, 23,630 in Ireland, 4,855 in England, and 2,432 in Scotland. There were 384,984 males and 395,910 females. Of the colored inhabitants, 151,463 were blacks and 23,928 mulattoes. The number of male citizens of the United States 21 years old and over was 169,845. The number of families was 140,078, having an average of 5-57 persons to a family; of dwellings, 129,620, with 6.02 persons to a dwelling.

There were 114,100 persons 10 years old and over who could not read; 135,499 could not write, of whom 126,-907 were natives and 8,592 foreigners, 46,796 whites and 88,703 colored, 61,981 males and 73,518 females; 21,572 were from 10 to 15 years of age, 21,452 from 15 to 21, and 92,471 were 21 and over. Of the last number, 13,344 were white males and 27,123 colored males There were 427 blind persons, 384 deaf and dumb, 733 insane, and 362 idiotic; number of paupers supported during the year ending June 1, 1870, 1,857, at a cost of $163,584; receiving support June 1, 1,612, of whom 265 were foreigners and 566 colored; number of persons convicted of crime during the year, 868; number in prison June 1, 1,035, of whom 68 were foreigners and 663 colored. The number of persons 10 years old and over returned as engaged in occupations was 258,543 (213,691 males and 44,852 females), of whom 80,449 were employed in agriculture, 79,226 in professional and personal services, 35,542 m trade and transportation, and 63,326 in manufactures and mining.

Included in these numbers were 48,079 agricultural laborers, 31,213 tanners and planters, 938 clergymen 34 742 domestic servants, 28,571 laborers, 772 lawyers, 1,771 officials and employees of government, 1,257 physicians and surgeons, 2,190 teachers, 9,775 traders and dealers, 9,840 in other mercantile pursuits, 2,859 officials and employees of railroad companies, 3,529 carmen, draymen, teamsters, etc, 5,968 sailors, steamboatmen, watermen, etc, 3,231 blacksmiths, 4,793 boot and shoe makers, 2,806 masons and stonecutters, 1,128 brick and tile makers, 1,566 butchers, 1,235 cabinetmakers and upholsterers, 7,904 carpenters and joiners, 1,086 cigar makers and tobacco workers, 1,483 coopers, 1,992 cotton and woollen mill operatives. 1,569 fishermen and oystermen, 1,709 iron and steel workers, 1,027 machinists, 1,116 millers, 2,041 milliners and dressmakers, 2,838 miners, 1,845 painters and varnishers, 5,68 tailors, tailoresses, and seamstresses, 1,256 tinners, and 1,026 wheelwrights. - The surface of the eastern shore of Maryland, which forms a part of the pen insula lying between Chesapeake and Delaware bays, is low and level except in the N. part, where it is somewhat broken and rocky. The soil of this region is generally sandy.

That part of the western division of the state which forms the peninsula between Chesapeake bay and the estuary of the Potomac presents the same natural features. The northwest is rugged and mountainous. The Blue Ridge, and other main ranges of the Alleghanies, cross it from Virginia and West Virginia into Pennsylvania. None of these chains attains a great elevation. - The seacoast has a length of only 33 m.; but including the whole tide-water region of Chesapeake bay, the shore line is estimated at 411 m., and if the shores of islands be included, at 509 m. The principal rivers belonging wholly or in part to Maryland are the Potomac, Patuxent, Severn, Patapsco, Susquehanna, Elk, Choptank, Nanticoke, and Po-comoke. The rivers of the eastern shore, with the exception of the Choptank and Nanticoke. are rather inlets into which How numerous small creeks than rivers, and arc navigable only near their mouths. On the western shore, however, are the Potomac, navigable about 125 m.; the Patuxent, 50 m.; the Patapsco, 22 m.; and the Susquehanna, navigable beyond the Maryland boundary. Above Washington the Potomac receives the Monocacy river. Antietam creek, the Conecocheague river, and many smaller streams.

The extreme W. part of the state is drained by the Youghiogheny river, which through the Monongahela empties into the Ohio Chesapeake bay, which almost bisects the state, extending northward within 14 m. of the frontier of Pennsylvania, receives nearly all the rivers of Maryland. At its mouth, between Cape Charles and Cape Henry, it is 15 m. wide, its opening facing east; hut on penetrating the land it almost immediately changes its direction, its length lying almost due V and 8. A little below the mouth of the Potomac it is about 30 in. wide, after which it again contracts, and at its head branches off into several small estuaries just above the mouth of the Susquehanna. It is nearly 2O0 m lone, and navigable throughout. It contains many small islands, and its shores are indented with innumerable bays and inlets. The Atlantic const of Maryland has no harbors, and is bordered throughout by a sandy beach from a few yards to more than a quarter of a mile in breadth, enclosing a shallow lagoon. - In the variety of its geological formations and mineral production-. Maryland is one of the most remarkable states in the Union. Along the seaboard and the shores of Chesapeake hay occur alluvial deposits of the present epoch.

Next older are the beds of the pleistocene recognized in St. Mary's co., whence the formation extends southward along the coast of Virginia and North Carolina. The eastern shore is overspread almost exclusively with the clays, sands, and calcareous marls of the miocene; and the same formation is found on the W. side of the bay, reaching hack to the E. edge of the metamorphic rocks, the line of which is commonly marked by the lowest falls of the rivers, as they descend from this platform of ancient rocks. The miocene formation is exposed in the banks of the creeks and rivers, and its beds of shell marl are there largely excavated for their valuable fertilizing materials. Deposits of hog ore are found in this formation, as well as in more recent ones. Among the tertiary ferruginous sands and clays spread over the western shore, from the vicinity of Washington to the head of the bay, are numerous deposits of argillaceous carbonate of iron in flat bands and balls. The cretaceous formation enters the N. E. corner of the state from New Jersey and Delaware; but it is lost S. of the Susquehanna river. Immediately back of Baltimore are hills of metamorphic rocks, talcose and mica slates, and limestones, which extend N. E. and S. W. across the state.

Among them are serpentine rocks, which constitute barren hills known as the "Bare Hills." In these, beds of chrome iron have been extensively worked, and their products have been i converted into chrome pigments, and also exported to Europe. The same formations have yielded large quantities of the silicates and hydrates of magnesia. Mines of copper ore have also been worked in the metamorphic rocks, and others of hematite support numerous blast furnaces; in the same group of rocks are also extensive quarries of limestone and marble. At Sykesville, on the Patapsco, specular iron ore is found, and worked in connection with pyritous copper ores. Passing westward across the metamorphic belt, and included in it, is a narrow strip of the "middle secondary red sandstone," which is traced from New Jersey through Pennsylvania and Marvland into Virginia. It passes through Carroll and the eastern part of Frederick co., crossing the Potomac just W. of Montgomery co. In this region was obtained from this formation the breceiated marble of which the pillars in the old ball of representatives in the capitol at Washington were made. In Frederick co., along the range of this belt, have been worked several copper mines.

The portion of the metamorphic group lying W. of this trough of the middle secondary is but a few miles wide; and in the Catoctin and South mountains, on the W. line of Frederick co., are found the Silurian rocks, the Potsdam sandstones, and the Trenton and associated limestones, the lower members of the Appalachian system of rocks. The calcareous strata overspread the E. portion of Washington co., extending N. in a broad belt into Pennsylvania and S. into Virginia. The finest valleys of the middle states lie on their range, and wherever met with these rocks give fertility to the soil and beauty to the scenery. Newer members of the Appalachian series of rocks succeed toward the west these lower formations, and are repeated with them in successive parallel ridges, which are the eastern members of the Appalachian chain. At Cumberland in Allegany co. commences the ascent of the main ridges. Up their slope the middle Silurian rocks soon give place to the red shales and sandstones of the Devonian, and these are succeeded by the carboniferous formation, which caps the summits of Dan's and Savage mountains, and overspreads the intervening valley of George's creek, as the strata dip in each direction into the trough-shaped basin.

At Frostburg, Lonaconing, AVesternport, and other points in the valley, is obtained the semi-bituminous coal known in the eastern markets as Cumberland coal. Extensive works have been in operation at Mt. Savage, and also at Lonaconing, converting the iron ores of the coal formation into pig iron, and this into rails and other forms of wrought iron. The supply of ores, however, has proved uncertain, and, like most other attempts to found large operations upon these ores, the enterprises have not prospered. From this point to the W. boundary of the state the country continues mountainous, consisting of parallel ridges and valleys, the former capped by the coal formation or the underlying conglomerate and red and gray sandstones, and the valleys occupied by the coal measures. According to the census of 1870, the number of mining establishments in operation was 80, having 32 steam engines of 888 horse power, and 2 water wheels of 82 horse power; number of hands employed, 3,801 (1,241 above and 2,5(H) below ground); amount of capital invested, $25,369,730; wages paid, $1,839,952; value of materials used, $205,547; of products, $3,444,183. There were 22 mines of bituminous coal, vielding 1,819,824 tons, valued at $2,409,208 43 of iron ore, yielding 98,354 tons, valued at $600,-246; 2 of copper, producing $71,500 worth of ore; 2 marble quarries, yielding $275,000; 2 slate, and 9 stone quarries.

Of the coal mines 20 were in Allegany co. Of the iron 50,487 tons were produced" in Baltimore co., 18,300 in Carroll, 12,000 in Frederick, 9,300 in Allegany, and 6,190 in Anne Arundel. - The climate of the state is temperate, and in most places salubrious, although the lowlands bordering on the bay arc subject to miasmata which produce bilious fevers and fever and ague. The mean annual temperature in the middle portion of the state is 56°; in the north, 54° • and in the highest parts in the west, 50°! Rain is abundant, the largest annual fall (50 inches) occurring on' the W. shore of Chesapeake bay. The mean temperature at Baltimore for each month of the year ending Sept. 30, 1873, was as follows: October, 58-3° November, 43-6°; December, 32-2°; January' 34°; February, 35'5°; March, 40'3°: April, 51.9°; May, 62.3°; June, 73.9°; July, 79.4° August, 76.3°; September, 68°; year, 54.64°. The minimum was 2° (in February); the maximum, 96.5° (in July). The total rainfall was: October, 4.08 inches; November, 3.17; December, 2.72; January, 4.27; February, 4.74; March, 3.02; April, 2.77; May, 6.31; June, 0.94; July, 2.90; August, 9.49; September, 3.70; year, 48.11. The number of deaths in 1870 was 9,740, of which 3,978 were from general diseases, 1,161 from diseases of the nervous, 339 of the circulatory, 1,342 of the respiratory, and 1,499 of the digestive system, and the rest from miscellaneous causes.

Among deaths from special diseases were: consumption, 1,678; pneumonia, 742; cholera infantum, 604; enteric fever, 434; scarlet fever, 331; whooping cough, 281; croup, 272; encephalitis, 249; convulsions, 239; paralysis, 231; diphtheria, 218; dropsy, 186; measles, 177; dysentery, 167; diarrhoea, 157; teething, 143; and hydrocephalus, 112. - The soil of the eastern shore is not naturally rich, but by the aid of manure it may be made to yield abundant crops. On the other side of the bay a tract closely resembling this lies along the shore. It has been much improved by the use of marl, bone dust, and guano, and forms the chief tobacco-growing region" of the state. Some of the valleys of the interior and northern counties are extremely fertile. The commonest forest trees are the oak, hickory, chestnut, pine, locust, walnut, cedar, gum, and beach. Tobacco, wheat, and Indian corn are the staple cultivated crops. In 1870 Maryland was fifth among the states in the production of tobacco. Oats, rye, Irish and sweet potatoes, hay, milk, butter, wool, etc, are also produced. Peaches, strawberries, etc, are extensively cultivated in the E. part of the state.

The number of farms in 1870 was 27,000, of which 1,314 contained less than 10 acres each, 1,764 from 10 to 20, 4,825 from 20 to 50, 7,026 from 50 to 100, 11,894 from 100 to 500, 163 from 500 to 1,000, and 14 1,000 acres and over. The number of acres of improved farm land was 2,914,007; cash value of farms, $170,-369,684; of farming implements and machinery, $5,268,676; amount of wages paid during the year, including value of board, $8,560,-367; estimated value of all farm productions, including betterments and additions to stock, $35,343,927; value of orchard products, $1,319,-405; of produce of market gardens, $1,039,-782; of forest products, $613,209; of home manufactures, $63,608; of animals slaughtered or sold for slaughter, $4,621,418; of live stock, $18,433,698. The productions were 1,095 wheat, 307,089 of rye, 11,701,817 of Indian corn, 3,221 wheat, 57,5o6 of peas and beans, 1,632,205 of Irish potatoes, 218,706 of sweet potatoes, 35,-040 of clover seed, 2,609 of grass seed, 1,541 of flax seed, 15,785,339 lbs. of tobacco, 435-213 of wool, 5,014,729 of butter, 6,732 of cheese, 2,800 of hops, 30,760 of flax, 70.464 of maple sugar, 3,439 of wax, 118,938 of honey 11,583 gallons of wine, 1,520,101 of milk sold' 28,563 of sorghum molasses, 374 of maple molasses, and 223,119 tons of hay.

The live stock consisted of 89,696 horses, 9,8,30 mules and asses, 94,794 milch cows. 22,491 working oxen 98,074( other cattle, 129,697 sheep, and 257,-893 swine. There were also 12.520 horses and 16,040 cattle not on farms. - The number of manufacturing establishments was 5,812, having 531 steam engines of 13,961 horse power, and 937 water wheels of 18,461 horse power; number of hands employed, 44,860, of whom 34,061 were males above 16, 8,278 females above 15, and 2,521 youth; amount of capital invested, $36,438,729; wages paid, $12,682,-817; value of materials used, $46,897,032; of products, $76,593,613. The following table exhibits the number of establishments, with the capital and value of products, of the principal branches:

INDUSTRIES.

No. of establishments.

Capital.

Value of product!.

Agricultural implements.......

34

$281,300

$549,085

Bags, paper and other than paper..

8

100.000

588.275

Boots and shoes...

812

767,105

8,111,076

Bread and bakery products....Bread and Bakery products...

159

874,195

1.220,399

Brick...

73

1,068,800

1,191.545

Carriages and wagons...

133

297,650

667.I57

Clothing...

323

2,284,825

5,970,718

Coal oil, rectified...

8

198,000

647.889

Confectionery...

52

249,585

733.481

Cooperage...

88

290.454

878.782

Copper, milled and smelted-----

1

800.000

1.016.500

Cotton goods...

22

2.784,250

4.852,808

Fertilizers....

15

488,800

632,352.

Flouring and grist mill products

518

2,790,700

6,766,459

Fruits and vegetables, canned.

19

608,000

1,587,230

Furniture...

131

845,945

1,888,698

Gas...

5

1,820,000

l,027,165

Glass..

4

145,700

246,400

Iron, forged, rolled, etc........

13

1.015,500

3,654,212

" pigs...

14

2,005,000

2,143,089

" cast...

43

784,185

928,094

Leather ,tanned...

69

792,480

1,265,388

" curried...

50

288.145

628,308

" morocco, tanned and curried...

4

64.000

163,000

Lime...

24

106.150

234,199

Liquors,distilled...

8

220,700

889,261

" malt...

32

588,500

665,743

Lumber, planed...

11

241,800

474,857

" sawed...

391

1,055,000

1,501,471

Machinery, not specified...

22

372,700

581,391

" steam engines and boilers....

7

485.000

373,475

Molasses and sugar, refined-----

4

958,000

7,007,857

Musical instruments and materials...

9

504.000

674,600

Oil, vegetables...

2

145,000

478,125

Oysters and fish, canned...

13

1418,200

Paints....

5

440,000

1,027,500

INDUSTRIES.

No. of establishments.

Capital.

Value of products.

Paper..

26

$1.206.000

$948,710

Pork,packed...

1

125.000

595,000

Saddlery and harness.......

135

207.385

589,038

Sash,doors, and blinds...

17

282,425

419,506

Ship building, repairing, and ship materials...

31

172.500

357.404

Soap and candles...

13

230,050

521.439

Tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware.....

183

663.500

1,634,009

Tobacco and cigars...

2 84

910,000

1.772.257

Woollen goods...

23

198.945

390,036

The value of manufactures in 1810 was $8,-879 861; in 1840, $13,509,036; in 1850, $33,-043,892; in 1860, $41,735,157. - Maryland rink- sixth among the states in the value of foreign commerce, which is carried on wholly through Baltimore. The imports for the year ending June 30, 1874, amounted to $29,302,-138; domestic exports, $-27,513,111; foreign exports $179,598. The chief items of export were 76,053,533 lbs. of leaf tobacco, valued at $5,868,405; 6,809,609 bushels of Indian corn, $5,287,444; 412,743 barrels of flour, $3,240,-967- 38,665 bales of cotton, $2,669,219; and 13,321,567 lbs. of lard, $1,325,636. There were 1,117 entrances, tonnage 558,5.99, and 1,026 clearances, tonnage 524,847. The number of entrances in 1873 was 861, with an aggregate tonnage of 397,167, of which 367, of 118,637 tons, were American vessels, and 494, of 278,-530 tons, foreign; clearances, 853, with an aggregate tonnage of 411,161, of which 321, of 109,490 tons, were American, and 532, of 301,-671 tons, foreign. Besides Baltimore, Maryland includes the customs district of Annapolis, the eastern district, and part of the district of Cherrystone, Crisfield being the port of entry of the two last.

The following table gives the details of the coastwise trade, with the vessels registered, enrolled, and licensed, for the year ending June 30, 1874, and those built during the previous year:

DISTRICTS.

ENTRANCES.

CLEARANCES.

REGISTERED, &C.

BUILT IN 1873.

Vessels.

Tuns.

Vessels.

Tons.

Vessels.

Tons.

Vessels.

Tons.

Annapolis.................

4

188

3

176

94

1,904

2

71

Baltimore..

1,951

1,316,429

2,211

1,541,151

1,424

121,187

56

4,499

Eastern...

18

1,430

3

404

475

19,177

46

1,588

Total...................

1,973

1,318,047

2,217

1,541,731

1,993

142,268

104

6.158

Of the vessels registered, etc, or belonging in the state, 1,296 with an aggregate tonnage of 67,616 were sailing vessels, 113 of 39,325 tons steamers, and 584 of 35,327 tons unrigged ves-Is. Those built include 77 sailing vessels of 3,665 tons, 6 steamers of 950 tons, and 21 canal boats of 1,543 tons. The oyster fisheries of Chesapeake bay are of great value, and are the chief source of supply for the markets of the United States. The state maintains several police boats to enforce the regulations governing the fishery, and derives a revenue from licenses to those engaged in it. - The number of miles of railroad in operation in 1844 was 259; in 1854, 327; in 1864, 408. The statistics of the various lines for 1874 are as follows:

RAILROADS.

TERMINI.

Miles in operation in the state.

Annapolis and Elk Ridge...

Annapolis to a junction with the Baltimore and Ohio railroad........

20 1/2

Baltimore and Potomac..............

40

Branch...

Bowie to Pope's Creek............................................

49

Baltimore and Ohio..................

Baltimore to Wheeling, W. Va. (379 m.)...........................

137 3/4

Washington branch................

Relay House to Washington......................................

31

Metropolitan.......................

Point of Rocks to Washington....................................

42 1/2

Branch........................

Frederick Junction to Frederick............................

3

Columbia and Port Deposit. .......

Port Deposit to Rolandville Junction.........................

5

C umberland and Pennsylvania........

Cumberland to Piedmont, W. Va.................

38

Branches...........

Cumberland to Astor Mines..............

14

Kreigbaum's to Pennsylvania line

3

Cumberland Valley

Harrisburg, Pa., to Williamsport (82 m.)...........................

14

Dorchester and Delaware.............

Seaford, Del., on Delaware railroad to Cambridge (88 m.)...........

27

Eastern shore....

Delmar on Delaware line, at terminus of Delaware road, to Crisfield.

38

Frederick and Pennsylvania..

Frederick to Woodsboro.................... ..........

17

Kent County ....

Townsend, Del., on Delaware road, to Parsons (36 m.)..............

29

Maryland and Delaware.............

Clayton " " " " to Easton (44 m.)...............

30

Northern Central...

Baltimore to Sunbury, Pa. (138 m.).................

36

Philadelphia and Baltimore Central..

West Chester Junction, Pa., to Rowlandville Junction (46 m.).......

9 1/4

Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore

Philadelphia to Baltimore (96 m.)...................

54

Branch....

Perryville to Port Deposit...................

3 3/4

Pittsburgh ,Washington and Baltimore

Pittsburgh, Pa., to Cumberland (149 1/2 m.).......

6

Queen Anne and Kent..

Massey's Junction, on Kent County railroad, to Centreville..

36

Washington ounty

Hagerstown Junction, on Baltimore and Ohio railroad, to Hagerstown

24

Western Maryland...

Baltimore to Williamsport.................

90

Wicomico and Pocomoke...

Salisbury, on Eastern Shore railroad, to Berlin.......

23

Worcester...

Berlin to Snow Hill.....................

14

Worcester and Somerset

Newtown Junction, on Eastern Shore railroad, to Newtown

9

Total.............

848 3/4

The Frederick and Pennsylvania railroad is to be extended to the Pennsylvania line, making the entire length 28 m. The Washington County line is operated by the Baltimore and Ohio company, the Worcester by the Wicomico and Pocomoke, and the Columbia and Port Deposit by the Philadelphia and Baltimore Central. The Southern Maryland railroad is in progress from Washington to Point Lookout, at the entrance of the Potomac into Chesapeake bay, 75 in. The Chesapeake and Ohio canal follows the valley of the Potomac from Cumberland to Georgetown, D. C, 184 1/2 m., thence crossing the Potomac by an aqueduct to Alexandria, Va. A portion of the Susquehanna and Tidewater canal, from Wrights-ville, Pa., on the Susquehanna river, opposite Columbia, to Havre de Grace, 45 m., is within this state; and also a portion of the Chesapeake and Delaware ship canal, which connects the waters of Chesapeake and Delaware bays. - The number of national banks in operation in the state in 1873 was 33, having an aggregate capital of $13,640,203; state banks, 10, with $2,913,013 capital; savings banks, 7, with deposits to the amount of about $15,000,000. There were 17 fire and marine insurance companies chartered by the state, having an aggregate capital of $2,651,568; assets, $4,967,378; liabilities, $1,048,797. There were 71 companies of other states and 10 foreign companies doing business in Maryland. There were 2 home life insurance companies, with $200,000 capital, $864,394 assets, and $601,770 liabilities; and 38 companies of other states doing business in Maryland. - The constitution vests the executive power in a governor, who is assisted by a secretary of state, attorney general, comptroller, treasurer, state librarian, and commissioner of the land office.

The governor and attorney general are elected by the people for a term of four years, and the comptroller for two years; the treasurer is chosen by joint ballot of the two houses of the legislature for two years; the other officers are appointed by the governor, with the advice and consent of the senate, for four years. The governor must be 30 years of age, for ten years a citizen of the state, and for the last five years a resident thereof. He grants reprieves and pardons except in cases of impeachment, remits fines and forfeitures for offences against the state, and has a veto upon the acts of the legislature, which may be overcome by a three-fifths vote of both houses. He enters upon his office on the first Monday of January after his election, and has a salary of $4,500._ In case of his death, resignation, or disqualification, the legislature elects a governor for the residue of the term. If that body is not in session, the president of the senate, or in default of that officer the speaker of the house of delegates, acts until a new governor is chosen. The governor, comptroller, and treasurer constitute the board of public works. The legislative power is vested in a general assembly, consisting of a senate and house of delegates.

The senators, 26 in number (one from each county and one from each of the three legislative districts of the city of Baltimore), are elected for four years, one half retiring biennially. The delegates (present dumber 85) are elected for two years, and are apportioned among the counties after each census according to population. Senators must have attained the age of 25 years. The legislature meets biennially on the first Wednesday in January of even years. Regular sessions are restricted to 90 days, but the governor may call special sessions, which shall not exceed 30 days. Members receive $5 a day during the session, and the presiding officers $8. besides mileage. The house possesses the power of impeachment; the senate constitutes the court for the trial, two thirds being necessary for a conviction. The court of appealshas appellate jurisdiction only, and consists of the chief judges of the first seven circuits, besides a judge specially elected by the electors of Baltimore city. The state is divided into eight judicial circuits, the city of Baltimore constituting the eighth.

In each circuit, except the eighth, a chief judge and two associate judges are elected, and in each county a circuit court is held, having general original jurisdiction both civil and criminal, and appellate jurisdiction of judgments of justices of the peace. In the city of Baltimore there are five courts, viz.: the superior court of Baltimore city, the court of common pleas, and the Baltimore city court, having concurrent original jurisdiction in all civil common law cases (the city court having in addition exclusive jurisdiction of appeals from judgments of justices of the peace, and the common pleas exclusive jurisdiction in matters of insolvency); the circuit court of Baltimore city, with exclusive original jurisdiction in equity; and the criminal court of Baltimore, with general original jurisdiction of crimes. A chief judge and four associate judges constitute the supreme bench of Baltimore, designating one or more of their number to hold the above described courts, and any three or more to hold general terms with certain appellate powers. Judges are elected by the voters of the respective circuits for a term of 15 years, and cannot hold office beyond the age of 70. Three judges of the orphans' court are elected in each county and the city of Baltimore for a term of four years.

Justices of the peace are appointed by the governor, with the advice and consent of the senate, for the term of two years, and have jurisdiction of most civil cases, not involving the title to land, in which the amount in dispute does not exceed $100. Under the constitution every white male citizen of the United States, of sound mind and not a convict, 21 years of age and upward, who has resided for a year in the state and for six months in the county or legislative district, may vote in the ward or election district in which he resides. Under the provisions of the 15th amendment to the constitution of the United States, colored citizens are entitled to vote. No one who engages in or aids or abets a duel, or sends or accepts a challenge, nor any defaulter in public funds, can hold office; and no minister of the gbspel or person holding any civil office of profit or trust under the stati- or United States, except that of justice of the peace, is eligible to the legislature. The legislature is prohibited from lending the credit of the state to any individual, association, or corporation, and restrictions are placed upon the power of special legislation, of contracting a public debt, and of pledging the faith or credit of the state for the construction of internal improvements.

Amendments to the constitution must bo proposed by three fifths of each house of the legislature and ratified by the people. Every 20 years the people are to vote on the qnestion of holding a convention to revise the constitution. Murder in the first degree is punished with death; arson, rape, ami treason, with death or imprisonment for a term of years, in the discretion of the court; other crimes are punished by fines and imprisonment. The chief grounds of divorce are adultery, abandonment for three years, im-potency at the time of marriage, and illicit intercourse of the wife before marriage, unknown to the husband. A separation from bed and board may be had on the ground of cruel treatment, excessively vicious conduct, or desertion. A married woman may acquire, hold, and manage separate property free from liability for the debts of her husband; she may dispose of it by will as though single, but her husband must join with her in any deed. The rate of interest is 6 per cent. Maryland has two senators and is entitled to six representatives in congress, and has therefore eight votes in the electoral college. - The valuation of property, according to the United States census, has been as follows:

YEARS

ASSESSED VALUE.

True value of real and per-sonal estate.

Real estate.

Personal estate.

Total.

I860..

..

..

..

$219,217,364

1860..

$66,841,488

$231,793,800

$297,135,233

376,919,944

1870..

286,910,382

186,924,586

428,834,918

643,748,976

The taxation not national in 1870 was $6,632,-S42, of which $1,781,252 was state, $1,542,218 county, and $3,309,372 town, city, etc. The total debt amounted to $29,032,577, of which $13,317,475 (bonded; was state, $1,505,779 ($1,305,395 bonded) county, and $14,149,313 ($14,097,856 bonded) town, city, etc. The amount given as state debt includes liabilities incurred in aid of railroads, canals, etc. The sinking fund amounted to $1,704,450. According to the report of the comptroller for the year ending Sept. 30, 1873, the receipts into the state treasury, including a balance of $339,171 10 on hand at the beginning of tho year, were $2,771,818 58, of which $1,814,- 348 96 was from ordinary sources, viz.: $268,-955 61 from dividends and interest paid by banks and railroad and canal companies, $715,-604 81 from taxes on property, $4,005 27 from taxes on state and other stocks, $77,-808 47 from taxes on incorporated institutions, $540,203 53 from licenses on trades and occupations, marriages, the oyster fishery, etc, $15,183 30 from fees, $14,349 13 from fines and forfeitures, $7,029 73 from grain inspections, $10,403 97 from tobacco inspections and warehouses, $8,777 34 from state livestock scales, $2,559 41 from state wharves, $2,332 01 from the land office, $65,195 52 from taxes on commissions of executors and administrators, $39,817 61 from taxes on collateral inheritances, $4,773 50 from taxes on protests, and the rest miscellaneous.

The disbursements were $2,287,038 30, leaving a balance at the close of the year of $484,810 22; besides which there was $14,220 08 in the treasury to the credit of the school fund, and $66,579 28 to the credit of the sinking fund. Deducting $453,296 02 paid in redemption of the debt, and $152,500 to meet the state's subscription to stock of railroad companies in Charles and St. Mary's counties, the ordinary expenditures amounted to $1,681,242 34, viz.: $15,000 for the blind asylum, $10,800 for bounty to volunteers, $25,406 07 for salaries of civil officers, $77,901 92 for colleges and academies, $49,904 91 for colored schools, $30,000 for the deaf and dumb asylum, $10,-000 for the colored deaf and dumb and blind asylum, $50,050 for various charitable and reformatory institutions, $701,909 29 for interest on the public debt, $88,802 78 for salaries of judicial officers, $2,500 for the Maryland inebriate asylum, $14,000 for the state penitentiary, $23,810 72 for the militia, $49,200 for pensions, $388,566 97 for public schools, $9,500 for the state normal school, $2,000 for the colored state normal school, and the rest miscellaneous.

The assessed value of property was $424,072,712, and the tax, 17 cents (10 cents for public schools) on $100, amounted to $721,994 17. The assets of the state on Sept. 30, 1873, were represented by productive stock and bonds of railroad and other companies to the amount of $4,455,404 18; amount due from incorporated institutions, tax collectors and other officers, $1,995,701 90; unproductive stock and bonds and accrued interest, $21,608,694 51; total, $28,059,800 05. More than $20,000,000 of the unproductive assets consist of stock and bonds of and interest due from the Chesapeake and Ohio canal company, which it is believed, at a not very distant period, will make some return to the state. The funded debt at the above date amounted to $10,741,215 00. Deducting the sinking fund and the productive stock and bonds, the net debt was $0,219,172 14. The free school fund, including the fund for the indigent blind ($10,770 47), amounted to $314,010 10, invested in stocks and bonds, except $14,220 08 cash in the treasury.

The balance to the credit of the oyster fund was $272,014 14; receipts during the year, $65,490 55; expenditures, $24,770 75; both included in the receipts and expenditures given above. - The state institutions are the penitentiary, the institution for the instruction of the blind, and that for the colored blind and deaf mutes, in Baltimore; the hospital for the insane, at Spring Grove, near Catonsville, Baltimore co.; and the institution for the education of the deaf and dumb, at Frederick. The penitentiary is under the management of a board of six directors, with six officers in immediate charge. The number of convicts in prison during the year ending Nov. 30, 1873, was 824, of whom 226 were received during the year; remaining at its close, 614, viz.: white males, 211; white females, 6; colored males, 361; colored females, 36. The convicts are employed in the prison, but the labor of the greater part is let to contractors, who manufacture shoes, harnesses, clothing, cooperage, marble work, etc. The earnings in 1873 amounted to $71,104 50, producing a surplus of more than $5,000 over the expenditures.

The hospital for the insane was established in Baltimore in 1828. In 1852 the legislature provided for the erection of the present building, which remaining uncompleted and encumbered with a heavy debt in 1870, the old hospital was sold, and the proceeds, with an appropriation of $330,000 from the state treasury, devoted to its completion. The patients were removed to it in 1872. It is capable of accommodating 300. The institution is under the management of a president and board of visitors, with four resident officers. The number of inmates during 1873 was 238; remaining at the close of the year, 127, of whom 70 were males and 57 females, 57 private and 70 public patients; 102 were chronic cases, 13 acute mania, 9 epileptic, and 3 mania a potu. Aside from such appropriations as the legislature may make, the income is derived from the receipts from the counties for pauper patients and from private patients. The institution for the instruction of the blind was opened in 1854. The number of pupils under instruction during the year ending Dec. 1, 1873, was 55; remaining at that date, 47, of whom 7 were from the District of Columbia and supported by the United States; number of officers and instructors, 10. Besides reading, etc, the boys receive instruction in piano tuning and broom making, and the girls in sewing, knitting, etc.

The age of admission is between 9 and 18 years, and pupils may be educated at the expense of the state, upon the recommendation of the governor. The institution for the education of the deaf and dumb was established in 1868, and was accommodated in barracks until the completion of the centre and south wing of the new building in the beginning of 1873. The north wing is not yet erected (1874). The number of pupils under instruction in 1873 was 99 (62 males and 37 females); remaining at the close of the year, 87; number of officers and instructors, 16; volumes in tin- library, 2,000. Instruction is given in articulation "and lip reading, and in shoemaking, as well as in the common branches of learning by the ordinary methods. The age of admission is from 9 to 21 years, and pupils may be educated at the public expense upon the certificate of the orphans' court or commissioners of the county in which they reside. The institution for the colored blind and deaf mutes was established in 1872, and in 1874 had 5 officers and instructors and 23 pupils, of whom 10 were deaf mutes and 13 blind. The house of refuge for juvenile delinquents, near Baltimore, was opened in 1855. The boys receive instruction in the rudiments of learning and in various industries.

A "house of merit" is connected with it. in which the younger and less vicious are separately classified. The institution is mainly supported by state and city appropriations. The number of inmates during 1873 was 411; remaining at the close of the year, 301. An act of 1874 provides for the establishment of a house of correction for convicts sentenced for not less than three months nor more than three years. - The constitution requires the general assembly to establish a system of free public schools, and to provide for its maintenance by taxation or otherwise. The act of 1872 constitutes a state board of education, a board of county school commissioners for each county, and a board of district school trustees for each school district, to have general control of the public schools in their respective jurisdictions. The state board consists of the principal of the state normal school ex officio, together with four persons appointed for two years by the governor, with the consent of the senate, from among the presidents and examiners of the county boards, one of whom must be a resident of the eastern shore. The county boards consist of three or five members, and are appointed for two years by the judges of the circuit courts.

They elect a person, not of their number, to act as secretary, treasurer, and examiner, and an assistant examiner in the larger counties when necessary. The schools are free to all white youth between the ages of 6 and 21 years, and at least one is directed to be kept open in each district for ten months in the year. The teachers must he graduates of the normal school, or have a certificate of competency from the county examiner or the state board. Teachers' institutes are required to be held once a year for five days in each county, under the direction of the county examiner and the principal or a professor of the normal school. The act empowers the mayor and council of the city of Baltimore to establish a system of free public schools, and to appoint a board of commissioners of public schools for that city. Separate free schools are established in each election district for colored children between the ages of 6 and 20 years, for the support of which are set apart such sums as may be appropriated by the state or given by individuals for that purpose, together with the taxes paid by the colored people for school purposes.

According to the report of the state board for the year ending Sept. 30, 1873, the number of public schools in operation was 1,742. including 225 for colored children; number of different pupils, 130,324 (14,171 colored); highest number enrolled in one term, 99,258; average daily attendance, 00,817; number of teachers, 2.555; average length of schools, 9 months and 13 days; amount paid for teachers' salaries, $889,476 47; for build-iiur, repairing, and furnishing school houses, $197,387 10; for books and stationery, $69,-526 29; for colored schools, $69,577 18; total expenditures for school purposes, $1,354,066 71, defrayed partly by a state tax of 10 cents on $100, partly by the income of the school fund, and partly "by local taxation. The schools of the city of Baltimore included one college or male high school, two female high schools, and 40 grammar schools (one colored). A few high and grammar schools have been established in other parts of the state; but the public schools are mostly elementary.

The Baltimore city college hail 10 instructors; number of different pupils during the year, 470; average attendance, 282. The state normal school for the training of teachers was established in Baltimore by the school law of 1805, and its continued existence has been provided for by subsequent acts; 200 pupils are entitled to be admitted free on the recommendation of the county or city school commissioners, upon declaring their intention to engage in teaching in the state, and others may be received upon the payment of tuition. The number of instructors in 1873 was 9; of pupils, 146, of whom 13 were males and 133 females; volumes in the library, 1,200. A model school is connected with it. The Howard normal school (colored), at Baltimore, was organized in 1865. It receives a small appropriation from the state, but is supported mainly by donations. The number of pupils in 1873 in all departments (primary, grammar, and normal) was 234; average attendance, 186. The number in the normal department was 74; volumes in the library, 1,000. The number of academies receiving state aid was 22, with 50 teachers and 1,257 pupils.

According to the United States census of 1870, the number of schools of all kinds was 1,779, having 1,498 male and 1,789 female teachers, 55,800 male and 51,584 female pupils; income from endowment, $21,697; from taxation and public funds, $1,134,347; from other sources, including tuition, $842,-171; total, $1,998,215. Of these, 1,487 (3 normal, 10 high, 49 grammar, 159 graded common, and 1,206 ungraded common) were public, with 2,150 teachers, 83,226 pupils, and an income of $1,146,057, of which $1,039,135 was derived from taxation and public funds. Of those not public, 53 were classical (19 colleges and 34 academies), 7 professional (1 law, 2 medical, 4 theological), 12 technical (1 agricultural, 3 commercial, 1 for the blind, 1 for the deaf and dumb, 6 of art and music), 153 day and boarding, and 67 parochial and charity. The statistics of the principal colleges for 1873-4 are exhibited in the following table:

COLLEGES.

Location.

Denomination.

Oate of organization.

No. of professorate.

Students.

Volumes in libraries.

Washington*............

Chestertown.......................

None............

1782

2

31

1,000

St.John's...

Annapolis...

None............

1784

11

130

4.000

Frederick*...............

Frederick.....................

None

1797

3

100

3.000

Mount St.ary's..

Emmettsburg..................

Roman Catholic..

1830

13

182

8,000

College of St. James...

College of St. James P. O., Washing-, ton co ................................................................................

Episcopal

1842

6

41

11,000

St. Charles's*............

Ellicott City..................

Roman Catholic.

1848

12

180

4.000

Loyala*...

Baltimore.................

Roman Catholic..

1852

15

140

21.500

Mount St. Clement's.....

Hchester................,

Roman Catholic.

1853

14

160

9,000

Rock Hill................

Ellicott City..............

Roman Catholic..

1857

22

149

6,800

Maryland Agricultural*...

Agricultural College P. O., Prince George's co...........

None............

1865

9

130

..

Woodstock.........

Woodstock.........

Roman Catholic .

1867

14

102

..

Western Maryland

Westminster............

Methodist Prot...

1863

13

131

3,500

These institutions, besides courses of collegiate grade, have preparatory departments, which embrace a large portion of the students. Mount St. Mary's college has a theological department, with 34 students not embraced in the number given in the table. St. Charles's college is regarded as a preparatory institution to the theological seminary of St. Sulpice and St. Mary's university at Baltimore (which in 1873-'4 had 6 professors and 60 students), and is designed only for those who are intended for the church. The Western Maryland college has a three years' course for females, with an attendance of 61 students included in the number given in the table, and gives special instruction to young men intended for the ministry. The college of St. James since the civil war has had only a high school or preparatory department in operation. Woodstock college is devoted exclusively to the education of the younger members of the society of Jesus, and embraces a three years' course of philosophy and a four years' course of theology; 42 of the students in 1873-'4 were pursuing the former course and 60 the latter.

Six state scholarships have been established in St. John's college for each senatorial district, exempting the holder from payment of room rent and tuition fees, and in 1872 the legislature provided for furnishing board to two of the incumbents from each district, who after receiving the advantages of the college for four years are required to teach school within the state for not less than two years. Several state scholarships have also been established in the Frederick, Washington, and Western Maryland colleges. The collegiate department of the agricultural college embraces a four years' course of arts, including agriculture and ordinary scientific and English studies, with classics and modern languages, and a three years' course of science, which is the same as the preceding, with the omission of classics. Provision is also made for such as desire to remain but one year in the institution. The college received the proceeds ($110,-000) of the 210,000 acres of land granted to the state by congress for the establishment of a college of agriculture and the mechanic arts. A farm of 300 acres is connected with it. Tuition is free; and in accordance with an act of the legislature 12 students from each congressional district receive the use of text books free.

The medical department of Washington university was established in Baltimore in 1833; a hospital and free dispensary are connected with it; in 1874 it had 11 professors and 313 alumni; the number of students in 1872-'3 was 192. The medical department of the university of Maryland in Baltimore was established in 1807; in 1873-'4 it had 12 professors, 114 students, and a library of 3,500 volumes. The Maryland college of pharmacy in Baltimore was established in 1841, and in 1873-'4 had 4 professors and 54 students; the degree of graduate in pharmacy is conferred after examination upon persons who have attained the age of 21 years, have served an apprenticeship of four years with some reputable pharmacist, and have attended two courses of lectures in a recognized college of pharmacy, the last course in this institution; any graduate of good standing, on passing a prescribed examination, is entitled to the degree of master in pharmacy. The Baltimore college of dental surgery, the oldest dental college in the world, was incorporated in 1840; in 1874 it had 9 professors and 578 alumni; the number graduating that year was 19; the number of students in 1872-3 was 50. Candidates for graduation are required to prepare a written thesis, to pass an examination upon the subjects taught in the college, and to have attended two courses of lectures in the institution; but an equivalent for one course is allowed.

The Maryland dental college was established in Baltimore in 1873, with 13 professors. The United States naval academy is situated at Annapolis. (See Annapolis.) - According to the census of 1870, the number of libraries was 3,353, containing 1,713,483 volumes, of which 2,037, with 1,142,538 volumes, were private. Of those not private, 2, with 31,462 volumes, were state libraries; 1, with 41,500 volumes, city; 20, with 14,062 volumes, court and law; 72, with 98,470 volumes, school, college, etc • 881, with 215,763 volumes, Sabbath school' and 310, with 90,989 volumes, church. There were 88 newspapers and periodicals, issuing 33,497,778 copies annually, and having a circulation of 235,450, viz.: 8 daily, circulation 82,921; 1 tri-weekly, 5,015; 2 semi-weekly, 1,600; 69 weekly, 127,314; and 8 monthly, 18,600. They were classified as follows: agricultural and horticultural, 2; commercial and financial, 2; illustrated, literary, and miscellaneous, 7; political, 70; religious, 6; technical and professional, 1. The number of church organizations was 1,420, with edifices, sittings, and property as shown in the following table:

DENOMINATIONS.

Edifices.

Sitting.

Value of property.

Baptists, regular............

58

12.025 .

$87,100

"other.............

84

8,705

62.500

Christian...

5

1,850

28,000

Episcopal...................

155

61.480

1,594,800

Evangelical Association.....

3

1,000

45.500

Friends...

21

7,440

151,700

Jewish.....................

4

2.750

650.000

Lutheran...................

84

40.915

875,100

Methodist..................

757

231,530

8,220,650

Moravian...

1

500

4.500

New Jerusalem...

3

900

27,000

Presbyterian...............

77

32,415

1,279,550

Reformed (late Dutch Reformed)...

1

600

15,000

Reformed (late German Reformed)...

42

19,950

562.150

Roman Catholic............

103

62,280

8.001.400

Unitarian...

1

800

150,000

United Brethren in Christ...

34

12,100

500

Universalist...

2

1,000

82.500

Union...

4

1.500

17.700

Total................

1,389

499,770

$12,038,650

The first settlement in Maryland was made by Capt. William Clayborne with a party of men from Virginia on Kent island, Chesapeake bay, in 1631. But the charter under which the colony was permanently established was granted to Cecilius Calvert, second Lord Baltimore, by Charles I., and was dated June 20, 1632. the province covered by this grant had been partially explored by Sir Gporge Calvert, father of the'grantee, four years before. The name first intended for the colony was Cree-centia, but in the charter it was styled Terra Mariae "Mary's Land," in honor of Queen Henrietta Maria. The expedition designed to commence the settlement sailed from the Isle of Wight Nov. 22, 1633, in two vessels named the Ark and the Dove. The emigrants numbered 200, and were nearly all Roman Catholics and gentlemen of fortune and respectabil-ity On March 27, 1634, they commenced a settlement at St. Mary's, near the entrance of the Potomac into Chesapeake bay, within the present limits of St. Mary's co. Leonard Calvert, brother of the lord proprietary, who had conducted the colony from England, became its first governor.

A year or two after landing he turned his attention toward Clayborne settlement; but Claybome refused to acknowledge himself subject to the new government, and was at length expelled along with his most active adherents. Under the charter Lord Baltimore had the power of enacting all necessary laws, with "the advice, consent, and approbation of the freemen of the province," or their representatives convened in general assembly. The first assembly met in the be-ginningof 1635, and submitted certain laws to the approval of the proprietary. A dispute thereupon arose respecting the right of initiative in legislation, which was settled in 1638 by Lord Baltimore's yielding the right to the assembly. (See Calvert.) In the following year the first statutes of Maryland were enacted. In 1642 a company of Puritans, who had been expelled from Virginia for nonconformity, settled in Maryland, and soon began to manifest a spirit of resistance to the authority of the proprietary. Clayborne also had returned from his exile and regained possession of Kent island.

The efforts of the governor to dispossess him not only failed, but Clayborne and his partisans, with the Puritan party, made themselves complete masters of the province, and compelled the governor in his turn to fly into Virginia. This event occurred in 1645. In 1647 the governor returned at the head of a military force and recovered possession. In 1649 the assembly passed an act by which Christians of all sects were secured in the public profession of their faith, and allowed to worship God according to the dictates of their own consciences. The Puritans, whose arrival in the colony has already been noticed, settled at Providence, which at a later period received the name of Annapolis and became the seat of government. They still proved turbulent, and as a means of conciliating them their settlement was erected in 1650 into a separate county under the name of Anne Arundel; and still additional members of this denomination arriving from England, Charles county was or-ganized for them a short time afterward. From this time they began to exercise a controlling influence in public affairs.

On the overthrow of the royal government and the establishment of the commonwealth in England, their party insisted upon an immediate recognition of the new order of things; but the authorities pro-ceeded to proclaim Charles II. In the next assembly it was found that the Puritans had a majority; and in 1652 commissioners from England visited Maryland, with whom were associated Clayborne, the old opponent of the proprietary government, and Bennett, the leader of the Puritans of Anno Arundel county. They removed Gov. Stone, who was subsequently reinstated by them, and completely established the authority of the commonwealth.

Kent island was once more delivered up to Clay-borne and he acquired also Palmer island at the mouth of the Susquehanna. In 1654 Lord Baltimore made a determined effort to regain possession of the province, and directed Gov Stone to require all persons to take the oath of fidelity, and to reestablish the proprietary government; but Bennett and Clavborno the former of whom was now governor of Virginia, again interfered, and reversed all that Lord Baltimore had accomplished. They established a commission for the government of the colony, and placed Capt. Fuller at its head. Hereupon a civil contest ensued, and hostilities were carried on by land and water. Providence was attacked by the proprietary party, but the Puritans were victorious, and killed or captured the whole invading force. Many of the captives, among whom was Gov. Stone, were condemned to death, and at least four of them were executed. This decisive action was fought March 25, 1655. Three years later the power of the proprietary was completely restored. In 1662 the Hon. Charles Calvert, son of the lord proprietary, was appointed governor, and so continued till 1676, when on the death of his father he succeeded to his rights, and appointed Thomas Notely his representative.

After the revolution of 1688 the government was assumed by King William, and in 1691 Sir Lionel Copley was sent out as governor. Among the first acts of importance under the new government was the removal of the capital from St. Mary's to Providence, thenceforth known as Annapolis. In 1714 Benedict Leonard Calvert succeeded on the death of his father to his hereditary rights, and dying the following year was succeeded by his son Charles, a Protestant. The principal obstacle to the recognition of the claim of this family being thus removed, the authority of the proprietary was restored throughout the colony after a suspension of 24 years. Hart, the last of the royal governors, was continued in office. In January, 1730, Baltimore was laid out. In 1745 the "Maryland Gazette," the first newspaper printed in Maryland, was established at Annapolis, and continued to be issued by the descendants of Thomas Green, its founder, until 1839. Frederick City was founded in 1745, and was so named after the son and successor of the then proprietary. Georgetown, now in the District of Columbia, was laid out in 1751, and, being at the head of the navigation of the Potomac, grew rapidly in population and trade.

The policy of the English, government was to repress all efforts to establish manufactures; but in 1742 copper works were in operation, and in 1749 eight furnaces and nine forges; and wine was produced to a considerable extent. The great staple export, however, was tobacco, of which 30,000 hogsheads were exported annually, and for many purposes tobacco was the currency of the province. In 1732 it was made a legal tender at one penny a pound. Almost from the date of the foundation of the colony disputes with the neighboring provinces regarding boundaries had been a serious cause of disquiet. The boundary with Virginia on the eastern shore was adjusted in 1668 by the running of the "Calvert and Scar-brough " line. That on the side of Delaware and Pennsylvania was not finally settled till 1760, when commissioners were appointed to run the lines. The Pennsylvania boundary is known as "Mason and Dixon's line," from the names of the surveyors who located it. (See Mason and Dixon's Line.) The W. boundary was surveyed in 1859 by commissioners appointed by Maryland and Virginia. The line along the Potomac remains still formally unadjusted, Maryland claiming the S. branch, and West Virginia the N. branch, while in the main stream Virginia claims the N. bank and Maryland the S. bank as the boundary.

This dispute involves valuable riparian rights, and in Chesapeake bay productive oyster fisheries. In the long and bloody contest which annihilated the French dominion in America, Maryland bore an active part. Until the capture of Fort Duquesne in 1758, the western parts of the colony were kept in constant terror, and large numbers sought refuge in Baltimore and other coast towns. The stamp act and the tea duty act were alike opposed by the people of Maryland, and in December, 1774, the proprietary government was practically superseded by a convention of the people. Another convention assembled in August, 1776, and in September presented a bill of rights and a constitution, which were adopted in November. The first elected legislature assembled at Annapolis, Feb. 5, 1777, and on the 13th Thomas Johnson was chosen the first republican governor. Throughout the war the Maryland troops were remarkably efficient, and under the title of the "Maryland line " took a high position in the continental army. In 1783 congress met at Annapolis, and here on Dec. 23 Washington resigned his commission.

The federal constitution was adopted in the Maryland convention by a vote of 63 to 11, on April 28, 1788. During the war of 1812, Admiral Cock-burn, the British naval officer, committed a series of depredations on the shores of Chesapeake bay, and plundered and burned French-town, Havre de Grace, Fredericktown, and Georgetown. The Maryland militia opposed the march of the British to Washington in 1814, but without effect. On Sept. 12 of the same year was fought the battle of North Point, in which the British general Ross was killed, and the Americans gained a slight advantage; and on the next day the invaders began an attack upon Baltimore by the bombardment of Fort McHenry. The defence was bravely conducted, and on the 16th the British fleet weighed anchor and made sail down the bay. The Baltimore and Ohio railroad was commenced in 1828, and completed to the Point of Rocks on the Potomac in 1832, but it was not opened to Wheeling till 1853. The Chesapeake and Ohio canal was undertaken by a company formed in 1828, and was completed in 1850. In 1802 and 1810 the constitution was amended, and in 1836 it was essentially remodelled. In 1845-6 it was again amended, and in 1851 a new constitution was adopted.

At the beginning of the civil war many citizens of Maryland favored secession, and many subsequently entered the confederate army. The first hostile demonstration was the attack on the sixth Massachusetts regiment in Baltimore, April 19, 1861. (See Baltimore.) The legislature, which met at Frederick on the 26th in pursuance of a proclamation of the governor, refused to pass an ordinance of secession, but took various measures looking to neutrality, and passed resolutions assenting to the independence of the confederate states and opposing the war. At the election which took place in November the Union candidate for governor was elected by a majority of 31,412 in a total vote of 83,584, and a legislature almost unanimously in favor of the Union was chosen. Henceforth the state authorities were active in support of the war, and 49,730 men were contributed by Maryland to the federal armies. In September, 1862, the battle of Antietam. the principal engagement that took place in Maryland, was fought, and in June, 1863, the state was invaded by Lee in his advance into Pennsylvania. Another invasion, under Gen. Early, took place in July, 1864, and a battle was fought on the Monocacy river (July 9). In October, 1864, a new constitution was ratified by the people by a vote of 30,174 to 29,799, which abolished slavery and disfranchised .all who had aided or encouraged rebellion against the United States. The present constitution was adopted at an election held on Sept. 18, 1867.