Maunel Chrysoloras, a learned Greek of Constantinople, the first who revived the study of Greek literature in Italy toward the close of the middle ages, born about the middle of the 14th century, died at Constance, April 15, 1415. The eastern empire being in danger of overthrow by Bajazet II., Chrysoloras was sent by the emperor about 1390 as ambassador to the western powers to solicit aid against the Turks. He visited Italy, France, and England; but his mission having failed, he was induced about 1395 to become a public teacher of Greek at Florence. He passed thence to various Italian universities, and was the preceptor of several early Hellenists; among others, of Leonardo Bruni, Poggio, and Guarino of Verona. His Erotemata, an introduction to Greek grammar, was the first and long the only channel to a knowledge of that language, save oral instruction; and it was several times reprinted after the grammars of Gaza and Las-caris had come more into use. He wrote many religious works, and letters on various subjects, most of which exist only in manuscript.

He enjoyed a high reputation for eloquence and theological learning, was employed by Gregory XII. in negotiations for the reunion of the Greek and Latin churches, and accompanied Pope John XXIII. to the council of Constance, where he died. - His nephew, JonN Ciitsoloras (died 14G2), followed him to Italy, and has sometimes been confounded with him.