A S. E. County Of Virginia, bordering on North Carolina, bounded N. by the Meherrin river, intersected by the Roanoke, and drained by its tributaries; area, 640 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 21,318, of whom 14,150 were colored. The surface is undulating and well timbered, and the soil generally fertile. The Roanoke Valley railroad terminates at Clarkesville. The chief productions in 1870 were 83,033 bushels of wheat, 243,506 of Indian corn, 123,492 of oats, 11,288 of Irish and 12,512 of sweet potatoes, 2,166,628 lbs. of tobacco, 8,815 of wool, and 147,599 of butter. There were 1,479 horses, 767 mules and asses, 2,557 milch cows, 1,081 working oxen, 3,367 other cattle, 5,439 sheep, and 11,108 swine. Capital, Boydton. H. A S. W. county of North Carolina, bordering on South Carolina, bounded W. by the Catawba river; area, about 700 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 24,299, of whom 10,-721 were colored. It has an elevated surface and fertile soil, and contains several gold mines. It is intersected by the Charlotte, Columbia, and Augusta, the Atlanta and Richmond Air Line, and other railroads. The chief productions in 1870 were 69,826 bushels of wheat, 454,864 of Indian corn, 75,990 of oats, 12,159 of Irish and 18,774 of sweet potatoes, 125,939 lbs. of butter, and 6,067 bales of cotton.
There were 2,017 horses, 1,822 mules and asses, 3,353 milch cows, 4,676 other cattle, 5,403 sheep, and 16,362 swine; 1 distillery, 11 saw mills, and 1 woollen mill. Capital, Charlotte. - The people of Mecklenburg took an early and spirited part in the resistance to Great Britain; and in May, 1775, they publicly renounced allegiance to the crown and adopted a declaration of independence.
Mecklenburg, a territory of northern Germany, belonging to the German empire, divided into the grand duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz, bordering on the Baltic sea, Pomerania, Brandenburg, Hanover, Lauenburg, and Ltibeck. The house of Mecklenburg is the oldest in Germany. The original inhabitants were of Germanic race, but were conquered during the great migration of nations by Slavic tribes. After long wars against the German monarchs, under the lead of native princes, the country was conquered about 1160 by Henry the Lion of Saxony, who divided it among his nobles, and gave a part of it to Pribislas, the descendant of a native dynasty, under the name of the principality of Mecklenburg. The reigning house was subsequently divided into two branches. The elder line was founded by John the Theologian, whose grandson Henry II. (or IV., 1302-'29) enriched it by the domain of Stargard. The sons of the latter, Albert and John, were made dukes in 1349; and a great-grandson of Albert became duke of the whole of Mecklenburg. Afterward the country was again divided into two lines, remaining so till 1628, when, on account of a supposed alliance with Denmark, Wallenstein was made ruler of the country.
In 1632 the expelled dukes were restored to power by Gustavus Adolphus, and shortlv afterward the final division of the country into the two parts took place. - Mecklenburg-Schwerin has an area of 5,138 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 557,897, chiefly Lutherans. A ridge of hills traverses the country, but the surface is generally level. It abounds in forests and lakes. Muritz is the largest lake, and Lake Malchin the most remarkable for its fine scenery. The chief river is the War-now, which at Rostock expands to a breadth of about 2,500 ft,, and falls into the sea at "Warnemtinde. The soil is fertile and well cultivated. Agriculture is the chief employment of the population. The principal product is wheat. Horned cattle and sheep are numerous, and the horses are celebrated. The number of vessels entering the ports in 1872 was 1,002, tonnage 113,740. The registered shipping comprised 426 vessels, tonnage 142,954. The legislature consists of 622 proprietors of Bitterguter or knights' estates, and 40 representatives of towns. Every two years the diet forms a joint assembly with that of Mecklenburg-Strelitz for common legislation. The public debt in 1872 was estimated at $5,000,000, nearly half of which was caused by loans for the construction of railways.
The country is divided into the provinces of Mecklenburg and Wenden, the principality of Schwerin, the city of Rostock, and the lordship of Wismar. It contains40 towns, the largest of which, and the principal trading port, is Rostock. Schwerin is the capital. - Mecklenburg-Strelitz consists of the dominion of Stargard or duchy of Strelitz (area, 909 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 79,976) on the east and the principality of Ratzeburg (area, 144 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 17,006) on the west of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Stargard contains 53 lakes, of which the Tollen lake is the largest. The principal river there is the Havel, and in Ratzeburg the Trave. The government is the same as in Mecklcnburg-Schwerin, excepting in Ratzeburg, which is not represented in the legislature. The grand duke is assisted by a cabinet, He is noted for his great wealth. No official accounts of the revenue and expenditure are published. The public debt is estimated at about $1,450,000. Capital, Neu Strelitz. - In 1867 both grand duchies joined the North German Confederation, and in 1868 the Zollverein; and in 1871 they became parts of the German empire, toward the foundation of which the grand duke of Mecklen-burg-Schwerin had contributed by his services in the Franco-German war. (See Frederick Francis II., vol. vii., p. 453.) By a special military convention concluded in 1872. the armies of both grand duchies were incorporated with that of Prussia. As the constitution of the empire guaranteed to every particular state a constitutional form of government, the liberals of Mecklenburg invoked the interference of the German Reichstag in behalf of the abolition of their feudal institutions.
In consequence of the resolution passed by the Reichstag, the grand ducal governments submitted drafts of a new constitution to the diet; but in July, 1874, no agreement between the governments and the diet had been arrived at.