Mikhail Kutuzoff, prince of Smolensk, a Russian general, born in 1745, died in Bun-zlau, Prussian Silesia, April 28, 1813. He commenced his military career at the age of 16, and distinguished himself in the campaigns in the Crimea, in which he was several times severely wounded. In 1783 he became a general of brigade, in 1784 a major general, and in 1790 he led under Suvaroff the assault against Ismail, at the taking of which 30,000 Turks were put to the sword. In 1791 he was made lieutenant general, and shared in the victory •over the Turks at Matchin, which led to the treaty of Jassy. He was ambassador to Constantinople in 1793, and subsequently filled important military and diplomatic stations under Catharine II., Paul, and Alexander. In 1805 he entered Germany with 50,000 men to form a junction with the Austrians, and gave the corps of Mortier a decided check at Dur-renstein, thereby temporarily deranging Napoleon's plans, for which he received from the emperor of Austria the grand cordon of Maria Theresa. He was present at Austerlitz in command of the allied forces, but was not responsible for the disaster of the day, having dissented entirely from the plan of the cross march to outflank the French. In the subsequent war with Turkey he gained fresh laurels, and concluded an advantageous peace at Bucharest in May, 1812. In August of the same year he was appointed to supersede Barclay de Tolly in command of the Russian forces opposed to the grand army led by Napoleon against Moscow. On Sept. 7 he hazarded a battle at Borodino against the whole French army led by Napoleon in person.
Although the issue of that conflict was in favor of the French, the Russians losing 52,000 men, and being obliged to resign Moscow, the national pride of the latter was gratified by this obstinate stand against their enemy, who lost 30,000 men, and Kutuzoff received in recompense a field marshal's baton. He subsequently concentrated his forces at Tarutino, midway between Moscow and Kaluga, and watching his opportunity routed the French advanced guard under Murat and Poniatowski at Vinkovo, Oct. 18. On the 24th was fought the battle of Ma-lo-Yaroslavetz, by which, although the French remained masters of the field, Napoleon was checked in his line of march, and compelled to retreat along the wasted line of the Smolensk road. Following the enemy, Kutuzoff defeated the corps of Eugene Beauharnais at Smolensk, Nov. 16, and on the two succeeding days Da-voust and Ney at Krasnoi, capturing 26,000 prisoners and over 200 pieces of cannon, and inflicting a loss of 10,000 men upon the enemy, his own troops losing but 2,000. As a reward for the skilful manoeuvres which had brought about these successes, he was created prince of Smolensk. After the passage of the Bere-sina he pursued the French more leisurely, and upon entering Wilna in December he found the campaign virtually ended, although the pursuit was continued as far as Kalisz, where the Russians paused, in the latter part of January. Having issued from this place a proclamation announcing the dissolution of the confederacy of the Rhine, and calling upon its members to join in the league formed for the deliverance of Germany, he crossed the Oder, and following on the traces of the enemy reached Bunzlau, where his constitution, enfeebled by the rigors of the campaign, yielded to an attack of malignant typhus fever.