Military Schools, institutions in which soldiers are instructed or youths educated for the army. Of the former class, the "soldier schools " of Prussia, established in every regiment or battalion, in which the privates are taught the common rudimentary branches, and sometimes singing also, are the most remarkable. There are similar schools in the Austrian, British, and other European armies. Academies of the second class, intended to educate officers, were not unknown in antiquity, and are now an indispensable part of the military system of all great nations. The first military school in France was established by Louis XV. at Vin-cennes in 1751; it had 500 pupils, all of whom were young noblemen. Soon after its establishment it was removed to the edifice built for it in the Champ de Mars, Paris, and it is still the principal military school of France. The famous school of St. Cyr, near Versailles, was originally founded by Bonaparte at Fontainebleau in 1802, but was a few years later removed to J its present location, and still retains the principal features of its first organization. It has 350 pupils between 18 and 20 years of age, who after a course of two years are sent, some to the icoU d'etat-major, others to the cavalry school at Sauiuur, and the rest to the army as sub-lieutenants of infantry.
There is also an important military school at La Fleche, founded by Louis XV. in 1764. Even before the seven rears' war the French had an artillery school In every town where a regiment of that arm was garrisoned, and their example has been followed by Germany and Austria. In Prussia the education of officers is provided for by high schools for each arm in every army division, and by the royal military school at Berlin, founded by Frederick the Great, to which the most deserving young officers are admitted from the line. In Great Britain the royal military college at Sandhurst, which comprises a cadets' college and a stuff college, and the royal military academy at Woolwich, designed as an artillery and engineer school, enjoy a high reputation. The United States military academy at West Point, founded in 1802, ranks second to no institution of the kind in the world. Cadets are admitted on the recommendation of members of congress and the president of the United States, and the act of congress of Feb. 2, 1872, increasing the congressional representation of the several states, enlarged the corps of cadets from 293 to 342, the present legal number. The education and subsistence are gratuitous, which is not the case at Sandhurst, Woolwich, St. Cyr, etc.
The course of study, under a superintendent and 40 professors and instructors, 32 of whom are army officers, covers a period of four years. Since 1866 the standard of qualifications has been raised, and appointments to cadetships must now be made one year previous to admission. To the end of 1873 about 2,500 had graduated at West Point, and the total cost of the school since its establishment was less than $9,000,000. Apart from West Point, military instruction in the United States is provided for as follows: The act of July 28, 1866, authorized the president, "for the purpose of promoting knowledge of military science among the young men of the Uni-ted States," to detail officers of experience to act as professors in institutions of learning having upward of 150 male students; and several institutions have availed themselves of such in-ruction. By the same act provision is made for the instruction of enlisted men in the common English branches of education, and especially in the history of the United States, at every post, garrison, or permanent camp. In 1867 an artillery school was organized at Fortress Monroe, to which one battery from each of the five regiments of artillery is ordered every year, for theoretical and 'practical instruction in that branch of military tactics.
In nearly every military department there are now school instruction in military signalling and telegraphy, and for this service there is special recruiting. I he Virginia military institute, at Lexington, was organized in 1839; in 1873 it had 19 instructors and 260 students; it owns property valued at $300,000, and received an annual appropriation of $15,000 from the state, which appoints a certain number of the cadets. Its course of instruction is similar to that of West Point. The Kentucky military institute at Frankfort, was organized in 1846; in 1873 it had 6 instructors and 78 students; it owns property valued at $75,000, and is controlled by a board of visitors appointed by the governor of the state. Two or three American colleges, like the university at Norwich, Vt., are under a partial military organization, and in several of the private schools throughout the country the pupils wear a uniform and are drilled in the manual of arms.