Miramon. Miguel, a Mexican soldier, born in the city of Mexico, Sept. 29, 1832, shot at Queretaro. June 19, 1867. He was of French descent. In 1846 he entered the military academy at Chapultepec, and in September, 1847, participated with his classmates in the defence of Molino del Key and Chapultepec against the Americans. He was wounded and taken prisoner, but after the treaty of peace returned to the academy and completed his studies. Entering the army in 1852, he was often engaged in suppressing local insurrections in the states of Jalisco and Mexico, until in October, 1854, he was sent with the rank of captain in the expedition against Alvarez, who had pronounced for the plan of Ayutla. He distinguished himself in several actions, especially in that of Temajalco, for which he was promoted (.July, 1855) to a colonelcy. A few weeks later, on the accession of Alvarez to the presidency, the regular army was placed under the control of its late enemies. This was so irksome to Miramon that in December, being sent as second in command of an expedition against the rebels of Zacapoaxatla, he imprisoned his superior, and with the entire force joined the pronmiciados, leading them soon after to Puebla, which city submitted without resistance.
In the memorable siege of Puebla, March, 1856, Miramon was the soul of the defence: and six months later he again pronounced at Puebla against Comonfort, defending that city a second time for 48 days against 10,000 besiegers. Escaping just before the capitulation, he engaged in a guerilla warfare, capturing Toluca in January, 1857. He was soon after wounded and made prisoner, but escaped in September, rejoined the revolutionists of the south as second in command, seized the town of Cuernavaca, and held it until the outbreak of the final movement against Comonfort headed by Zuloaga. During the fight-ing in the streets of Mexico in January, 1858, Miramon hastened thither with Osollo, and took by storm the Hospicio and the Acordada, thus deciding the withdrawal of Comonfort and the accession of Zuloaga to the presidency. Miramon was now, at the age of 25, made a brigadier general. Already the idol of the reactionary or church party, he was its most conspicuous leader in the three years' " war of reform" which commenced at this time. In March be gined the battle of Salamanca, which led to the Hight of Juarez from the country and the surrender to the conservatives of the chief cities of the interior.
He defeated the liberal coalition in the important battles of Ahualulco (September) and Atequiza (December), besides scores of minor engagements. the news of the battle of Atequiza having reached Mexico at a moment when a junta was engaged in the election of a president to succeed Zuloaga, overthrown by the plan of Navidad a few days before, Miramon was chosen, Jan. 2, 1859. He came at once to the capital, but declined the presidency and reinstated Zuloaga. The latter voluntarily retired from office a few days later, appointing Miramon president ad in terim. Taking possession of the government on Feb. 2, Miramon soon placed himself again at the head of the army, with which he laid siege to Vera Cruz, then the capital of the liberal government of Juarez. Obliged to raise the siege in April, he returned to Mexico in time to witness the battle of Ta-cubaya, in which Gen. Marquez defeated the forces of Degollado. The execution of the prisoners of Tacubaya, including many non-combants and several medical students (April 11, 1859), is the chief blot upon the character of Miramon. With alternate successes and reverses, the war of reform was prolonged until the close of 1860, when the decisive battle of Calpulalpam (Dec. 22) opened the gates of Mexico to the liberal army under Gonzalez Ortega, and Miramon was forced to seek safety in flight from the country.
In 1862 he attempted to return under cover of the intervention, but was not permitted by the allies to land at Vera Cruz. The succeeding years he passed in Europe. He approved the choice of Maximilian as emperor, but was requested to remain abroad in the nominal discharge of diplomatic functions, in order that his popularity might not embarrass the imperial administration. At the close of 1866, when it was believed that Maximilian was about to resign, Miramon returned to Mexico along with Marquez. As the result of conferences at Orizaba, Maximilian abandoned the intention of abdicating, returned to Mexico, placed Miramon and Marquez at the head of his diminished army, and with them and Mejia undertook the desperate campaign of Queretaro. Captured on May 15, 1867, Miramon was tried and condemned by a military commission, and was shot on the Cerro de las Campanas, along with Maximilian and Mejia. He left a widow and several children, who reside in Austria.