Missouri, a central state of the American Union, and the 11th admitted under the federal constitution, situated between lat. 36° and 40° 30' N., and Ion. 89° 2' and 95° 42' W.; length N. and S. 277 m.; average breadth about 244 m., varying from 208 m. in the north to 312 m. in the south; area, 65,350 sq. m., including a narrow strip between the St. Francois and Mississippi rivers, extending beyond the general body of the state 1/2° southward between Arkansas and Tennessee. Missouri is bounded N. by Iowa; E. by Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee, from which the Mississippi river divides it; S. by Arkansas; and W. by Indian territory, Kansas, and Nebraska, from which it is divided by a N. and S. line on the meridian of the mouth of Kansas river, and thence N. by the main channel of the Missouri river. The state is divided into 114 counties, viz.: Adair, Andrew, Atchison, Audrain, Barry, Barton, Bates, Benton, Bollinger, Boone, Buchanan, Butler, Caldwell, Callaway, Camden, Cape Girardeau, Carroll, Carter, Cass, Cedar, Chariton, Christian, Clarke, Clay, Clinton, Cole, Cooper, Crawford, Dade, Dallas, Daviess, De Kalb, Dent, Douglas, Dunklin, Franklin, Gasconade, Gentry, Greene, Grundy, Harrison, Henry, Hickory, Holt, Howard, Howell, Iron, Jackson, Jasper, Jefferson, Johnson, Knox, La Clede, Lafayette, Lawrence, Lewis, Lincoln, Linn, Livingston, McDonald, Macon, Madison, Maries, Marion, Mercer, Miller, Mississippi, Moniteau, Monroe, Montgomery, Morgan, New Madrid, Newton, Nodaway, Oregon, Osage, Ozark, Pemiscot, Perry, Pettis, Phelps, Pike, Platte, Polk, Pulaski, Putnam, Ralls, Randolph, Ray, Reynolds, Ripley, St. Charles, St. Clair, St. Francois, Ste. Genevieve, St. Louis, Saline, Schuyler, Scotland, Scott, Shannon, Shelby, Stoddard, Stone, Sullivan, Taney, Texas, Vernon, Warren, Washington, Wayne, Webster, Worth, Wright. Jefferson City, the capital, is near the central part of the state, on the Missouri river, 125 m. by rail W. of St. Louis; its population in 1870 was 4,420. The other important cities are Booneville, with 3,506 inhabitants in 1870; Cape Girardeau, 3,585; Hannibal, 10.125; Independence, 3,184; Kansas City, 32,260; Lexington, 4,373; Louisiana, 3.639; Macon, 3,678; St. Charles, 3,479; St. Joseph, 19,565; St. Louis, 310,864; Sedalia, 4,560; and Springfield, 5,555. - The population of Missouri, according to the federal census, has been as follows:
State Seal of Missouri.
Included in the population in 1870 were 3 Chinese and 75 Indians. Of the total population in that year, 896,347 were males and 824,948 females; 1,499,028 were of native and 222,267 of foreign birth. Of the natives, 874,006 were born in the state, 72,623 in Illinois, 51,303 in Indiana, 22,456 in Iowa, 102,661 in Kentucky, 31,805 in New York, 18,755 in North Carolina, 76,062 in Ohio, 35,384 in Pennsylvania, 70,212 in Tennessee, and 61,306 in Virginia | and West Virginia. The foreign population comprised 8,448 born in British America, 6,293 in Prance, 113,618 in Germany, 14,314 in England, 54,983 in Ireland, 3,283 in Scotland, 2,302 in Sweden, and 6,597 in Switzerland. The density of population was 26'34 persons to a square mile. There were 316,917 families, with an average of 5.43 persons to each, and 292,769 dwellings, with an average of 5.87 persons to each. The increase of population from 1860 to 1870 was 45.62 per cent. The number of male citizens 21 years old and upward was 380,235; persons from 5 to 18 years old, 577,-803; number attending school, 324,348. There were 146,771 persons 10 years old and upward who could not read, and 222,411 who could not write, the latter number comprising 206,827 of native and 15,584 of foreign birth, 161,763 white, 60,622 colored, and 26 Indians, 105,767 males, and 116,636 females.
Of the total population 10 years old and over, 18.45 per cent were illiterates; number of illiterates 21 years old and over, 124,508, of whom 84,904 were white, 38,589 colored, and 15 Indians, 52,788 males, and 70,717 females. The number of paupers supported during the year ending June 1, 1870, was 2,424, at a cost of $191,171. Of the total number (1,854) receiving support June 1, 1870, 1,415 were native, of whom 1,090 were white and 325 colored, and 439 were foreigners. The number of persons convicted of crime during the year was 1,503. Of the total number (1,623) in prison June 1, 1870, 1,217 were natives and 406 foreigners; of the former 893 were white and 324 colored. The state contained 904 blind, 790 deaf and dumb, 1,263 insane, and 779 idiotic. Of the total population 10 years old and upward (1,205,568), there were engaged in all occupations 505,556; in agriculture, 263,918, of whom 86,807 were laborers, and 174,961 farmers and planters; in professional and personal services, 106,903, including 1,739 clergymen, 29,338 domestic servants, 47,462 laborers not specified, 3,452 lawyers, 3,560 physicians and surgeons, and 4,117 teachers not specified; in trade and transportation, 54,885, of whom 9,681 were clerks in stores, 6,390 draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc, 7,710 employees of railroad companies (not clerks), and 4,757 traders and dealers not specified; and in manufactures and mechanical and mining industries, 79,850. The total number of deaths during the year was 27.982, being 1.63 per cent, of the population.
There were 990 deaths from cholera infantum; 2,717 from consumption, there being 10.3 deaths from all causes to 1 from that disease; croup, 719; measles, 869; pneumonia, 2,800, there being 10 deaths from all causes to 1 from that disease; smallpox, 1,034; diphtheria and scarlet fever, 1,405; intermittent and remittent fever, 1,052; enteric fever, 1,395; diarrhcea, 1,300. - The Missouri river divides this state into two distinct parts. The S. part is undulating, rising into mountains as it approaches the Ozark range. That portion N. of the river is more level. An extensive bottom land lies along the Mississippi, commencing on the N. at Cape Girardeau and extending S. to the Arkansas river. It includes many swamps which are rendered almost impenetrable by a dense growth of trees, mostly cypress. The most extensive of these, called the Great swamp, commences a few miles S. of Cape Girardeau and passes S. to the mouth of the St. Francois, penetrating far into the state of Arkansas. More than 100 in. of this swamp are in Missouri. Within the bottom are also many lakes and lagoons; but it likewise contains many islands elevated above the reach of the highest floods.
Since the earthquakes of 1811-12 much of this tract has been inundated; but it is capable of being reclaimed and has a very fertile soil. The highlands along the Mississippi begin below Cape Girardeau, and extend to the mouth of the Missouri. Between Ste. Genevieve and the Meramee the banks, composed of solid masses of limestone, rise occasionally 3(10 ft. above the water. This high and undulating country extends across the entire breadth of the state, its rugged character disappearing as the Osage river is approached. This is one of the least populous sections of the state, but it is exceedingly picturesque. It has a mild, dry, and genial climate. Between the Gasconade and Osaire, both of which are affluents of the Missouri, a range of low hills approaches that river, rising from loll to 200 ft. above its mean level. They are thinly wooded, and constitute the northernmost offset of the Ozark mountains a region of which the undulating country on the east may be considered as the lowest portion. This elevated tract covers more than half of that portion of the state S. of the Missouri. The surface is extremely broken and hilly; the bilk which rise from 500 to more than' 1,000 ft. above their bases, are exceedingly numerous but do not form continuous ranges, being divided into knobs and peaks with rounded summits, and presenting perpendicular cliffs and abrupt precipices of sandstone.
The soil covering them is generally shallow, and oversown almost exclusively with oak, and in the S. counties with pine and cedar. West of this region the country, especially the basin of the Osage. is chiefly a rolling prairie, diversified with forests of stunted timber; and to the north, along both sides of the Missouri, extends a rich alluvial bottom. In the country N. of the Missouri, which comprehends about one third of the state, the surface is generally rolling or level. The bottoms along the Missouri and Mississippi are remarkably fertile. Between these rivers the countrys much diversified by the broad valleys of their subsidiary streams, and intervening tracts of undulating upland which are united with the valleys by gen the slopes. The woodlands occur only on the margins of the watercourses, and the uplands are extensive prairies completely destitute of timber, These prairies occupy at least nine tenths of the whole region, and comprehend some of the best lands of the state. - The two principal streams are the Missouri, traversing the state from the N. W. corner to the middle of its E. boundary, and the Mississippi, forming its entire E. boundary, both navigable the whole year except when blocked with ice.
The Osage, the next largest stream, is navigable for small steamboats half the year. Next in importance are the St. Francois, White, Black, Current, Gasconade, Grand, Osage, and Chariton rivers, all navigable for small boats a few months in early summer. The other principal streams, not navigable, are Salt, Fabius, South Grand, Platte, Nodaway, Spring, Sac, Niangua, Piney, Meramee, Cuivre, and Castor rivers. - The soils of Missouri may be divided into four classes, referred each to its particular district. The first class comprises all the bottom lands and the swamps of S. E. Missouri, which latter include seven or eight counties, comprising large tracts of some of the richest lands in the world, yielding often 75 to 100 bushels of corn per acre. The S. E. counties produce fine crops of cotton. The next richest bodies of land yield 50 to 75 bushels of corn per acre on uplands, and include all N. W. Missouri, with five counties S. of Missouri river. This district is mostly underlaid by the upper coal measures, and for most farming purposes is the most desirable part of the state.
The third class, or second class of upland soil, includes the remainder of N. and the border counties in S. W. Missouri, in these counties 30 to 50 bushels of corn per acre are produced, and in the east they give a larger yield of wheat per acre than any others of the state. The poorest class of soils is found on all the hills of southern Missouri, where the yield is rarely over 20 to 40 bushels of corn per acre. This part of the state is 1,200 to 1,500 ft. above the sea, and chiefly underlaid by primordial sandstones and mag-nesian limestones, with occasional porphyry or granite peaks in the eastern part, which sometimes rise 300 to 400 ft. above the unaltered magnesian limestones, but their tops are probably not more than 1,500 ft. above the sea. While N. and W. Missouri has a gently undulating or rolling surface, with hills not often over 50 ft., and distant ridges 250 ft. high, in S. Missouri the stream channels have cut out their valleys 200 to 300 ft. below the hilltops, and often 400 ft. below the tops of distant ridges. Where the main streams are distant, tin' country spreads out into a flat table land. South of the main Ozark ridge, where the hills are covered with either sandstone or chert, are extensive pine forests.
The streams that traverse this portion of the state are clear, cool, and swift-running, and afford excellent water power. S. E. Missouri is heavily timbered, especially the swamp counties, which contain heavy forests of walnut, oak, cypress, poplar, gum, and sycamore. N. and W. Missouri is chiefly prairie, the timber being con-lined to narrow belts along the streams. The prairies afford excellent pasturage, and where they are grazed down a line growth of blue grass takes the place of the original wild grass. - The geological formations include the coal measures, 1,950 ft.; lower carboniferous, including Chester group, 300 ft.; ferruginous sandstone, 100 ft.; St. Louis limestone, 250 ft.; Keokuk group, 200 ft.; Burlington group, 800 ft.; and Chouteau group, 230 ft. The Devonian is represented by the Hamilton and Onondaga, 100 ft.; the upper Silurian by the Oriskany, 30 ft., Delthyris shale, 350 ft., Niagara group, 225 ft., and Cape Girardeau limestone, 50 ft. The lower Silurian includes the Cincinnati group, 100 ft., Trenton and Black river limestone, 400 ft., and magnesian limestone series, about 1,500 ft.; the latter includes 300 to 400 ft. of sandstone excellent for glass making.
The southern part of Missouri, including the Ozark ridge and most of the state S. of the Missouri and Osage rivers, excepting the two western tiers of counties, is from 1,000 to 1,400 ft. above the sea, and includes lower Silurian rocks, flanked by lower carboniferous. On the W. flank, near the state line, the country is not often over 800 ft. above the sea. On the W. and N. flank of this highland the coal measures commence. On the S. side of the Missouri river are found the middle and lower coal, not over 800 or 900 ft. above the sea. In N. Missouri the same formations are about 800 to 1,000 ft. above the sea. The elevation of the eastern and southern outcrop of the upper coal measures, near the base, is 875 to 990 ft. Toward the northern part of the state the upper measures are more elevated, and may reach from 1,000 to 1,100 ft. above the sea. The coal measures being composed of alternations of shales, sandstones, and limestones, their topography is such as would result from decomposition of such rocks. In no place has any limestone been observed of greater thickness than 30 ft., and the sandstones often pass into shales; so the topography of the coal formations is nowhere very rugged.
Along the line of outcrop of the limestones are sometimes seen steep and rugged hillsides, occurring from Cass county on the south, through Jackson, Platte, Clay, Ray, Caldwell, Daviess, Gentry, Worth, and Harrison counties. N. and W. of this are the upper measures, including alternations of thick and thin strata of limestone, with sandstones, shales, and clays; the resultant being the undulating and rolling portion of N. W. Missouri. The Missouri bluffs, in the region of the upper coal measures, attain an elevation of 250 to 330 ft. above the Missouri bottoms, and the inland ridges are but little higher. The summits of the highest ridges in Nodaway county, above One Hundred and Two and Platte rivers, are but little over 200 ft., and the bluffs along the streams are in no place over 50 ft. high. On North Grand river the immediate bluffs measure from 30 to 120 ft. within the upper coal district. Lower down stream, in the middle and lower coal regions, the hills recede and become lower. Near the base of the upper coal series, it is often 200 to 250 ft. from the valleys to the top of remote ridges.
In the lower and middle coal measures are great thicknesses of sandstones and shales, and long gentle slopes are found with bluffs on the streams 25 to 50 ft. high, rising to 100 ft. at a half mile to a mile. When the middle coal measures approach the Missouri river its bluffs vary in height from 100 to 165 ft. Another important characteristic is peculiar, especially near the junction of the upper and middle coal measures, and sometimes to the lower measures. The sandstones are very much denuded, leaving isolated mounds generally 80 to 100 and sometimes 140 ft. high, rising by very long slopes above the lower plains. These mounds are generally capped with limestone, which has preserved them from entire destruction. They are common throughout the lower coal district of S. W. Missouri, with sometimes intervening valleys 10 to 15 m. wide. The mounds have a circular base, sometimes elongated N. and S. This is particularly observable in a range trending S. along the W. line of Bates, Vernon, and Barton counties. From a distance these mounds appear like low mountain ranges. Aside from the mounds, the surface of the country is gently undulating and rolling.
The Missouri coal field comprises an area of about 23,100 sq. m., including 160 sq. m. in St. Louis county, 8 in St. Charles, a few outliers in Lincoln and W'arren, the remainder in N., W., and S. W. Missouri. In this area are included 8,400 sq. m. of upper or barren measures, 2,000 of exposed middle, and 12,700 of exposed lower measures. The southern and eastern boundary of the lower coal measures is as follows: entering the state about midway the west line of Jasper county, thence extending northeastwardly through Jasper, Barton, Dade, Cedar, St. Clair, Henry, Benton, Pettis, Saline, Howard, Boone, Callaway, Audrain, Montgomery, Ralls, Monroe, Shelby, Knox, Lewis, and Clark counties. The aggregate thickness of the upper coal measures is 1,317 ft., including only about 4 ft. of coal, in which are two seams 1 ft. thick, with lesser streaks. The middle coal measures include a total thickness of about 324 ft., in which are embraced about 8 ft. of coal, including two workable seams of 21 and 24 in., one which varies from 1 ft. to 3 ft., and six seams too thin to work.
The lower measures include from 250 to 300 ft., embracing about five workable seams of coal, varying in thickness from 1 1/2 to 4 1/2 ft., and thin seams from 6 to 11 in. thick, with lesser seams and streaks; in all, 13 1/2 ft. of coal. Missouri has therefore nearly 2,000 ft. of coal measures, with a total aggregate of 24 ft. 6 in. of coal. All beds over 18 in. thick are estimated as workable. The estimated area, where such may be reached within 200 ft. from the surface, is about 7,000 sq. m. The drift formation spreads over the whole of N. Missouri, and is limited in its southern extension by the Missouri river, with the exception of a few outliers just south of the river. In some counties 'it is over 100 ft. thick, and where it consists chiefly of sand and bowlders the country is hilly and rolling, with occasional chalybeate springs. Where blue clay is more abundant, we find a flat country. Missouri contains valuable lead and iron deposits. (See Iron Mountain, Iron Ores, and Lead.) A geological survey of Missouri is now (1875) in progress, under the direction of the state geologist, G.C. Broadhead. - -The climate is in gome respects extreme. The winters are sometimes long and severe, the summers often hot; and sudden and frequent changes of temperature occur.
The mean annual temperature at St. Louis (lat. 38° 37', Ion. 90° 16') in 1872 was:55.1o. and the total rainfall 31.5 inches. The prevailing wind was southerly, and the annual mean, as shown by the barometer, was.
The mean temperature for the different months was: January, 28.3°; February, 32.1: March, Mid: April, 57.5°; May, 67.4; June, 76.9°; July. 79o; August, 74.9°; September, 69.8; October, 60.5°; November, 40.2; December, 30.5°. The greatest amount of rainfall, 5.97 inches, was in May. - Maize, wheat, oats, and tobacco form the staple productions. Cotton, hemp, and flax are cultivated to some extent in the southern counties. The peach, nectarine, apple, and pear are cultivated, and the wild grape abounds. Grapes are extensively cultivated in several counties, and large quantities of wine are annually produced. The prairies form excellent pasture lauds, and the bottoms furnish canes and rushes for winter fodder. Sheep farming is also successfully and extensively pursued, and swine are very numerous, being readily raised in the forests. Elk are occasionally found in the dense forests of the southeast; deer are still met with even in the partially timbered, sections; and many fur-bearing animals in the unsettled parts, but too few to be profitable to the hunter. According to the federal census, there were in the state in 1860 92,792 farms with an average of 215 acres, and in 1870 148,328 with an average of 146 acres.
In the former year the land in farms comprised 6,246,871 acres of improved and 13,737,939 of unimproved land, and in 1870 9,130,615 acres of improved and 12,576,605 of unimproved, including 8,965,229 of woodland and 3,611,376 of other unimproved land. In 1870 10,113 farms contained from 3 to 10 acres, 17,431 between 10 and 20, 55,987 between 20and 50, 38,595 be-tween 50 and 100,24,898 between 100 and 500, 514 between 500 and l,000, and 98 over 1,000 acres. The cash value of farms was $81,716,-576; of farming implements and machinery, $4,456,63.;; wages paid during the year, in-eluding value of hoard, $10,326,794; estimated value of all farm productions, including betterments and additions to stock, $73 137-953,orchard products, $71,018; of produce of market gardens, $61,735; of forest products, $39,975; of borne manufactures, $505,298; of animals slaughtered or sold for slaughter, $4,-090,818; of all live stock, $29,940,238. The productions were 1,093,905 bushels of spring and 13,222,021 of winter wheat, 559,532 of rye, 66,034,075 of Indian corn, 16,578,313 of oats, 269,240 of barley, 36,252 of buckwheat, 43,986 of peas and beans, 4,238,361 of Irish and 241,253 of sweet potatoes, 2,494 of clover, 12,246 of grass, and 10,391 of flax seed, 615,-611 tons of hay and 2,816 of hemp, 1,246 bales of cotton, 12,320,483 lbs. of tobacco, 3,649,390 of wool, 14,455,825 of butter, 204,090 of cheese, 19,297 of hops, 16,613 of flax, 116,980 of maple sugar, 1,156,444 of honey, 35,248 of wax, 326,173 gallons of wine, 857,704 of milk sold, 1,730,171 of sorghum and 16,317 of maple molasses.
Besides 543,822 horses and 1,269,065 neat cattle not on farms, there were on farms 493,969 horses, 111,502 mules and asses, 398,515 milch cows, 65,825 working oxen, 689,355 other cattle, 1,352,001 sheep, and 2,306,430 swine. Missouri produced in 1870, according to the census, more Indian corn than any other state except Illinois, Iowa, and Ohio, more wine than any other except California, and ranked after Kentucky, Virginia, Tennessee, Ohio, and Maryland in the yield of tobacco; it contained more mules and asses than any other, and more swine than any other except Illinois; next to Texas and Kentucky the highest number of working oxen, and excepting Texas and Illinois the most cattle. The reported production of cereals in 1873 was: corn, 70,-846,000 bushels; wheat, 10,927,000; rye, 446,-000; oats, 15,670,000; and barley, 266,000. - -The great industrial resources of Missouri, its abundant water power, and the enterprise of its citizens have placed it in the front rank of manufacturing states. According to the census of 1870, it ranked next to New York, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and Ohio in the value of products, while besides those states only Connecticut and Illinois surpassed it in the amount of capital invested in manufactures.
The general condition of the manufacturing industry in 1870, as compared with that of 1860, is shown in the following statement:
Number of establishments...
Steam engines, number.......
" " horse power...
Water wheels, number.........
" " horse power..
Hands employed, total.........
" " males above 16..
" " females above 15
" "youth ..........
Value of materials...
" of products....
Not included in the statement for 1870 is the mining industry, the products of which were valued at $3,472,513, including bituminous coal worth $2,011,820; iron ore, $491,496; lead, $201,885; and stone, $767,312. The number of establishments was 142, employing 3,423 hands and having a capital of $3,489,-250. Missouri in 1870 ranked first in the production of bags other than paper, animal oil, paints, and saddlery and harness, and also in bridge building; second in the manufacture of tobacco, New York being first; and third in the production of bread and crackers, brick, malt liquors, and patent medicines. There were 9,593,591 lbs. of leaf tobacco, valued at $3,752,374, besides other materials worth $716,426, used in producing 6,735,362 lbs. of chewing tobacco, valued at $6,209,593, 3,300,-938 lbs. of smoking tobacco, worth $1,967,918, and 223,900 lbs. of snuff, valued at $154,000. Besides this, $817,195 worth of materials were used in the manufacture of 47,157 cigars, valued at $2,084,093. The relation of the state to the United States in those industries in which Missouri ranked first is shown in the following statement of the value of products:
Bags other than paper.......
5 476 175
9 728 007
Paints, not specified...........
5 720 758
Saddlery and harness............
Pork packing is also a prominent industry of the state. During the season of 1872-3 a greater number of hogs were packed in Missouri than in any other state except Illinois, while in 1873-'4 it ranked after Illinois and Ohio. The number packed in the former season was 890,679, and in the latter 735,868, of an average gross weight of 259 lbs., the aggregate cost of which was $8,221,066. The total product of lard in 1873-'4 was 26,153,601 lbs. The great centre of this industry is St. Louis, where 463,793 hogs were packed; Kansas City ranked next, 140,348. The most important industries of the state, as reported by the census of 1870, are shown in the following table:
No. of establishments.
Steam engines, horse power.
Value of materials.
Value of products.
Bags other than paper...
Boots and shoes...
Bread, crackers, and other bakery products...
Carpentering and building...
Carriages and wagons...
Cars,frieght and passenger...
Flouring and grist mill products...
Furniture, not specified...
Iron,forged and rolled...
" casting not specified...
" stoves, heaters, and hollow ware...
Machinery, steam engines ,and boilers...
Masonry, brick and stone...
Meat packed, pork...
Molasses and sugar, refined...
Paints, no specified...
Patent medicines and compounds...
Printing and publishing , not specified...
" " newspaper...
" " job...
Saddlery and harness....
Sash, doors, and blinds...
Soap and candles...
Tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware...
Tobacco, chewing, snuffing, and smoking...
The commerce of Missouri is very extensive, since a large portion of the produce of the northwest, as well as of the supplies for that section, is borne over the Missouri and Mississippi rivers and the numerous railroads of the state. The great commercial centre of all this trade is St. Louis, between which and other leading ports on the western and southern rivers numerous boats are constantly plying. In addition to its vast domestic trade, it has an important foreign commerce under the act of congress of 1870 allowing foreign merchandise to be transported in bond direct to interior ports. The value of this import trade during the year ending June 30, 1873, was $1,167,690. St. Louis, St. Joseph, and Kansas City are United States ports of delivery, belonging to the district of Louisiana. In 1873, 314 vessels, of 131,087 tons, were registered, enrolled and licensed at St. Louis, and 9, of 1 447 tons, at St. Joseph; 185, of 81,842 tons, were steamers. At St. Louis 24 vessels, of 7 756 tons, were built in 1873. - Missouri had 38m. of'railroad in 1853, and 817 in 1860. The increase of mileage was small up to 1866, when the whole number of miles was 925. In 1870 there were 2,000 in.; in 1871, 2,580; in 1872, 2,673; in 1873, 2,858; and in 1874, 2,985 m. of main track and branches.
The total capital stock in 1873 was stated at $74,440,242, and the average cost of the railroads per mile at $60,953. The total receipts amounted to $12,188,908, of which about 68 per cent, was from freight and 32 per cent, from passengers. The operating expenses were $7,864,214, and the net earnings $4,322,694; dividends paid, $250,000. The railroads were valued for taxation at $24,231,330. The aid granted by the state for building them amounts to $16,762,-904, and by counties and cities to $28,576,000, making a total of $45,338,904. The railroads in operation in 1874, with their termini and lengths, are indicated in the following statement:
Miles completed in the state in
Total length between termini when different from preceding.
Atlantic and Pacific...
Pacific to Vinita, Ind,Ter...
Burlington and Southwestern...
Burlington,Ia, to St.Joseph...
Branches in Progress...
Unionville to Kansas City...
Lexington to Neosho...
Cape Girardean and state Line...
Cape Girardean to state line,Ark...
*Chicago and Southwestern...
Junction to Atchison,Kan...
• • •
Hannibal and St.Joseph...
Hannibal to St.Joseph...
• • •
• • •
Cameron to Kansas City...
St. Joseph to Atchison. Kan...............
Kansas City St Joseph, and Council Bluffs.....
Kansas City to Council Bluffs.Ia...
St.Joseph to Hopkins...
Keokuk and Kansas City......................
Keokuk, la., to Kansas City...............
Lexington and St.Louis..
Sedalia to Lexington...
Louisiana and Missouri River.................
Louisiana to Mexcio...
Mexico to Cedar City...
Pierce City to Independence,Kan...
Mississippi Valley and Western...
Keokuk,Ia, to St.Louis...
Missouri, lowa and Nebraska...
Alexandria to Nebraska City, Neb...
Missouri, Kansas, and Texas...
Hannibal to Denison ,Texas....
Holden to Paola,an..
Osage Valley and Souther Kansas...
Booneville to Tipton......................
. • •
Pacific pf Missouri...
St.Louis to Kansas City...
Carondelet to Kirkwood....
. . .
Quincy, Missouri, and Pacific...
Quincy, 111., to Brownsville, Neb..........
St.Louis, Iron Mountain, and Southern.........
St.Louis to Columbus ,Ky...
. . .
Mineral Point to Potosi...................
. . .
Bismark to Arknsas state line...
Cairo. Arkansas, and Texas division........
Cairo, 111., to Poplar Bluff.................
• • •
St. Louis, Kansas City, and Northern..........
St. Louis to Junction (H. and St. J. railr'd)'.
Moberly to Iowa state line...
(Boone County and Jefferson City)..
Centralia to Columbia...
Brunswick to Chillicothe..................
• • .
(St. Louis, Council Bluffs, and Omaha)
Chillicothe to Pattonsburg................
(St. Joseph and St. Louis)...........
North Lexington to St. Joseph............
†St. louis ,lawrence and denver...
Pleasant Hill to Lawrence, Kan...........
St. Louis, Salem, and Little Bock...........
Cuba to Salem...
The number of national banks in operation Nov. 1, I873, was 35, Laving a paid-in capital of $9,135,300 and an outstanding circulation of $5,908,379; circulation per capita, $3 43; ratio of circulation to wealth, 0.4 per cent.; to bank capital. 64.3 per cent. There were in St. Louis 7 hanks with a circulation of $1,763,150. - The constitution grants the elective franchise to every male citizen of the United States, and to every foreigner who has declared his intention to become a citizen, who has attained the age of 21 years, and resided in the state one year next preceding his registration as a voter, and during the last 60 days of that period in the place of voting. After Jan. 1, 1876, every person who was not a qualified voter prior to that time must also he able to read and write as a qualification for voting. The general elections are held biennially (even years) on the Tuesday next after the first Monday in November. The legislature is limited by the constitution to 34 senators, elected for four years (one half every two years), and 200 representatives, chosen for two years. The present number (1875) is 34 senators and 131 representatives.
New apportionments are to be made immediately after every national census, and also after every state census, which the constitution provides for being taken in 1876 and every ten years thereafter. The sessions of the legislature are biennial, beginning on the first Wednesday of January in odd years. Members of the legislature must be white males, and must have paid a state and county tax. The governor is elected for two years, and is not eligible to that office for more than four years in six. His salary is $5,000 per annum. A majority of each house of the legislature is sufficient to pass a bill over the executive veto. The other state officers, who are elected for the same term as the governor, are a lieutenant governor (who receives $7 a day during the session of the general assembly), secretary of state, auditor, treasurer (each of whom receives $3,000 a year), and attorney general. The constitution declares colored citizens ineligible to the above named state offices and also as members of the legislature. The supreme court, consisting of five judges elected by the people for six years, holds two annual sessions at St. Louis, at Jefferson City, and at St. Joseph. Besides having appellate jurisdiction, it issues remedial writs.
There are 29 circuit courts, each having one judge elected for six years, except that for St. Louis, which has five judges. They generally hold two sessions a year. Besides these there are county courts of three justices in each county, and justices of the peace. Imprisonment for debt is prohibited by the constitution except for fines and penalties imposed for violation of law. Amendments to the constitution must be approved by a majority of the members elected to each house, and ratified by a vote of the people at the next general election. A homestead not exceeding $3,000 in value in cities of 40,000 inhabitants or more, and not exceeding $1,500 in smaller cities and in the country, is exempt from levy on execution. The real estate of a married woman is not liable for the debts of the husband. The grounds of divorce are impotence, desertion for a year, adultery, conviction of felony or infamous crime, habitual drunkenness for a year, cruelties or indignities that render life intolerable, the husband becoming a vagrant, and pregnancy by another than the husband without his knowledge at the time of the marriage. Missouri is represented in congress by two senators and 13 representatives, and has therefore 15 votes in the electoral college.
The bonded debt of the state on Jan, 1, 1875, and the purposes for which the bonds were issued, were as follows:
* Leaded to Chicago, Rock Island, and Pacific
† to Atlantic and Pacific.
‡Leased to Chicago and Alton.
Hannibal and St. Joseph railroad................
Missouri Pacific railroad........................
St. Louis and Iron Mountain railroad...
S.W.Branch Pacific railroad...
North Missouri... "...
Platte County "......
Cairo and Fulton "...
State debt proper...
Northwestern Lunatic asylum...
S.W.branch Pacific railroad (guaranteed)...
Refunding stae bonds...
Funding state bonds...
Certificate to school fund...
The total receipts into the treasury during the year ending Jan. 1, 1875, were $3,307,419, while the disbursements on warrants amounted to $3,434,782. The balance in the treasury was $566,215. The constitution provides that an annual tax of 15 per cent, shall be levied upon the gross receipts of the Pacific, North Missouri, and St. Louis and Iron Mountain railroads for the payment of the principal and interest of the state bonds received by those companies; also a tax of one quarter of one per cent, on all real and personal taxable property for the payment of the state debt. According to the federal census of 1870, the assessed value of real estate was $418,527,535; personal, $137,602,434. The total taxable wealth in 1874 (two counties not reported) was $589,-174,215, on which there was levied a revenue tax (| of 1 per cent.) of $1,178,496, interest tax ( 1/4 of 1 per cent.) of $1,473,183, and county tax amounting to $5,179,241. - The state asylum for the insane is in Fulton, and was opened in 1851. Of the total number (668) treated during the two years ending Dec. 1, 1874, 136 were discharged recovered, 47 improved, 65 stationary, and 82 died. In 1875 there were 338 in the asylum.
The insane asylum in St. Louis is a county institution, but the state appropriated $30,000 toward its support during 1873 and 1874. An additional asylum for the insane was established at St. Joseph in 1874. Deaf and dumb persons between the ages of 7 and 30 years are received free of charge for board and tuition at the state asylum in Fulton. This was opened in 1851, and at the beginning of 1873 had 146 pupils and 8 instructors. The annual appropriation by the state for current expenses is $7,000, besides $2,500 to the indigent fund. St. Bridget's institute (Roman Catholic) in St. Louis, for the education of the deaf and dumb, was founded in 1860. The institution for the blind in St. Louis, opened in 1851, receives from the state an annual appropriation of $15,000, besides the salaries of officers and teachers, amounting to about $6,000. There were 100 pupils in attendance in 1874. The state penitentiary at Jefferson City has a capacity for 1,200 convicts; the number in confinement in 1874 was 1,000, including 42 females. Punishment is by the dungeon, and in some cases the lash.
The prisoners are employed in the manufacture of shoes, furniture, saddletrees, and barrels, and in the foundery and machine shop; about 500 convicts were thus employed in 1874. The penitentiary is leased to a company, and is just becoming self-sustaining. - The constitution requires the general assembly to maintain free schools open to all persons between the ages of 5 and 21 years. Separate schools may be established for colored children, but all funds provided for the support of public schools must be appropriated in proportion to the number of children without regard to color. Certain lands and other sources of income are set apart for a permanent school fund, and in case the income of such fund be insufficient to sustain a free school at least four months in every year in each school district, the general assembly may raise the necessary amount by a local tax. The permanent school fund on Jan. 1, 1875, amounted to $2,624,354, the income of which, with 25 per cent, of the state revenue, is distributed annually according to the number of pupils enumerated. The amount thus distributed March 31, 1874, was $410,269. The legal school age is from 5 to 21. The general assembly is empowered to provide for compulsory education.
The supervision of public instruction is vested by the constitution in a board of education, consisting of a superintendent of public hools, elected by the people for four years, and the secretary of state and attorney general. A state university, "with departments for instruction in teaching, in agriculture, and in natural science," is made a part of the free public school system of the state. Appropriations of any public fund for sectarian education by the state, comity, or any municipal corporation, are prohibited by the constitution. The most important statistics of the public schools of the state for 1873 are thus reported by the state superintendent:
Number of persons between 5 and 21 years of age. 705 817
White males.................................. 343,540
" females............................... 324,034
Colored males................................. 20,591
" females............................... 17,652
Number between the ages of 5 and 16 years....... 485,249
Number of public schools....................... 7,829
For white persons............................ 7,547
For colored persons........................... 2-2
Number of school districts...................... 7,483 of school houses........................ 7.224 of private schools...................... 661 of normal schools...................... 5
Number enrolled in public schools............... 371,440 in private schools.............. 88,525
" in university and normal schools. 1.252 tendance In public schools....... 210,692
Number of teachers (male 6,281, female 3,395).. 9,076
Average monthly wages, male................... $39 87 female................. $30 36
Total income for school purposes................. $2,117,662
From state fund, including 25 per cent, state revenue....................................... $252,461
From county fund............................ $181,546
From township fund.......................... $187,222
From taxation............................... $1.496433
Total expenditures.............................. $1,638,358
Teachers' wages.............................. $1,125,605
Buildings and grounds........................ $295,026
Rent of rooms and repairs.................... $84,513
Fuel and contingencies........................ $67 387
Furniture and apparatus..................... $65,822
Balance of moneys unaccounted for........... $479 809 valuation of school property............... $6 774506
Cost of education per scholar, baaed on enumeration................................. $3 00
Cost of education per scholar, based on attendance or enrollment.............................. $5,70
There are six normal schools, supported at public expense .and without charge for tuition, with an aggregate capacity for upward of 2,300 pupils, viz.: the normal college connected with the state university, with accommodations for 150 students; the city normal school in St. Louis 150 the North Missouri school, at Kirksville, 700; the South Missouri, at War-rensburg, 600; the Southeast Missouri, at Cape Girardeau, 500; and the normal department of Lincoln institute, at Jefferson City, 200 The condition of these institutions in 1873-4 is shown in the following statement:
Annual state appropriation.
No. of instructors.
No. of pupils.
Normal department state university-----
North Missouri normal school.........
South Missouri normal school...
Southeast Missouri normal school...
St. Louis normal school...
Normal department Lincoln institute...
The normal schools are established upon a broad and liberal basis. The North Missouri and South Missouri schools have been erected at a cost of about $150,000 and $200,000 respectively. The complete course embraces four years. The normal department of Lincoln institute is for the training of colored teachers, while that in St. Louis is a city institution, though open to applicants from all parts of the state. The law requires two teachers' institutes to be held in each county every year. - The state university, organized in 1840, is at Columbia, near the centre of the state. It has received Missouri's portion of the national grant of land made by congress in 1862 for the establishment of colleges of agriculture and the mechanic arts. Its government is vested in a board of 24 curators, who are appointed by the governor with the consent of the senate, and who appoint the president and instructors. There is also a board of five visitors, who are required to examine into the condition of the university at least once a year.
The plan of the institution embraces the college proper; the normal school, opened in 1868; agricultural and mechanical college, 1870; school of mines and metallurgy at Kolla, 1871; college of law, 1872; medical college, 1873; and department of analytical and applied chemistry, 1873. It is expected that other departments relating to the mechanic arts, the fine arts, engineering, and architecture and construction will be organized. The total number of students in attendance during the year 1873-'4 was 553, including 5 resident graduates, 176 in the college proper, 216 in the preparatory department, 107 in the school of mines, 34 in the law, and 15 in the medical school. The whole number of instructors was 29. The university is open to women on the same terms as to men. The scientific department of Washington university in St. Louis was opened in 1857, and the college in 1859. It now embraces: 1, the academy, a preparatory department; 2, Mary institute, a seminary for girls; 3, the college; 4, the polytechnic department; 5, the law school.
In 1873-4 the number of instructors in all departments was 22, and of pupils 908. The colleges and professional schools of the state are represented in the following statement for 1873-4:
NAME OF INSTITUTION.
Date of organization
No. of | teachers.
No. of pupils, preparatory.
No. of pupils, collegiate.
M. E. church, South..
College of the Christian Brothers...
M. E. church, South.
St. Joseph college...
St. Louis university...
St. Paul's college...
St. Vincent's college...
William Jewell college...
• . .
German Evangelical Lutheran college, Concordia___
St. Vincent's ...
Theological school of Westminster college...
Vandeman school of theology...
Law college of state unversity...
Law department of Washington university...
Kansas City college of physicians and surceons
Medical college of state university...
Missouri medical college...
St.Louis medical collge ...
Homoeopathic medical college of Missouri....
Missouri dental college...
St. Louis college of pharmacy....
Agricultural and mechanical college (state university)
Missouri school of mines and metallurgy (state university...
Polytechnic department of Washington university...
The leading institutions for the advanced instruction of women are the Ursuline academy, Mary institute, and academy of the Visitation, in St. Louis; Christian college and Stephen's female college, Columbia; Howard female college, Fayette; Independence female college, Independence; St. Teresa's.academy, Kansas City; Liberty female college, Liberty; Ingle-side female college, Palmyra; and Lindenwood college for young ladies, St. Charles. The oldest of these are the academy of the Visitation, organized in 1833, and Ursuline academy, opened in 1848, both Roman Catholic. Nine of these institutions report an aggregate of 1,136 pupils, of whom 807 were in the collegiate and 329 in preparatory studies, and 97 instructors, including 11 males. St. Louis has four commercial and business colleges, and there is one in St. Joseph and one in Kansas City. - According to the census of 1870, the total number of .educational institutions in Missouri was 6,750, having 9,028 teachers, of whom 3,871 were females, and 370,337 pupils. The total income of the whole was $4,340,805, of which $57,567 was from endowment, $3,-067,449 from taxation and public funds, and $1,215,789 from tuition and other sources.
Besides the 5,996 public schools, having 7,362 teachers, there were 37 colleges with 261 teachers and 6,067 students, 45 academies with 333 teachers and 5,031 pupils, and 586 private schools with 770 teachers and 26,816 pupils. The total number of libraries in the state was 5,645, having 1,065,638 volumes; 3,903 with 566,642 volumes were private, and 1,742 with 498,996 volumes other than private. Of the latter there was 1 state library, with 12,000 volumes; 11 town, city, etc, 8,097; 125 court and law, 35,104; 50 school, college, etc, 44,825; 1,283 Sabbath school, 188,493; 243 church, 96,845; and 28 circulating, 112,450. The largest libraries in the state are the St. Louis mercantile, 45,000 volumes; St. Louis university, 25,000; public school library of St. Louis, 36,000; and college of the Christian Brothers, 10,000. The total number of newspapers and ' periodicals was 279, having an aggregate circulation of 522,866, and issuing annuallv 47,980,422 copies. There were 21 daily, with a circulation of 86,655; 5 tri-weekly, 13,800; 225 weekly, 342,361; 3 semi-monthly, 22,000; 23 monthly, 53,650; and 1 annual, 1 500. In 1874 there were reported 24 daily, 5' tri-weeklv, 1 semi-weekly, 284 weekly, 6 semi-monthly, 30 monthly, 1 bi-monthly, and 1 quarterly; total, 352. - In 1870 the state contained 3,229 religious organizations, having 2 082 edifices with 691,520 sittings, and property valued at $9,709,358. The different denominations were represented as follows:
* Tn all departments.
† In collegiate commercial courses.
New Jerusalem (Sweden.......).
Presbyterian, regular.. .
Reformed church in the United States date German Reformed...
United Breth'n in Christ
By the grant of Louis XIV. to Crozat dated Sept. 14,1712, "all the country drained by the waters emptying directly or indirectly into the Mississippi is included in the boundaries of Louisiana." (See Louisiana.) The states of Arkansas, Iowa, Kansas, and Nebraska were parts of the same grand division. The northern portion was called Upper Louisiana. The settlement and progress of Missouri were later and less rapid than those of the lower districts; but as early as 1 720 its lead mines had attracted attention. In 1755 Ste. Genevieve, its oldest town, was founded. In 1762 France ceded to Spain the territory W. of the Mississippi, and the portion E. of that river to England. France had been despoiled of all her North American possessions. During the contest numbers of Canadian French settled in both Upper and Lower Louisiana, and a flourishing river trade sprang up between the two sections. Lands were granted liberally to the colonists, and numerous emigrants from Spain flocked into the country. In 1775 St. Louis, originally a depot for the fur trade, contained 800 inhabitants, and Ste. Genevieve about 400. At this time Spain, siding with the colonists, entered into hostilities against England. In Lower Louisiana and Florida the arms of Spain wore successful; but in 1780 St. Louis was attacked by a body of English and Indians from Michili-mackinac, and was only relieved by the timely arrival of Gen. Clarke from Kaskaskia. The neral peace of 1783 put an end to hostilities. the division of the Louisiana purchase in . Missouri was included in the district of Louisiana, which in 1805 was erected into the territory of Louisiana, with St. Louis as the of of its government.
In 1812, on the admission of the present state of Louisiana into the Union, the name of the territory was changed to Missouri, and its government made representative. The limits on the west were gradually extended by treaties with the Indians. In 1810 the population numbered 20,846, of whom all but about 1,500 belonging to Arkansas were settled within the present limits of Missouri. Immigration now came in rapidly from the east. In 1817 the total population had increased to 60,000, and St. Louis contained 5,000 inhabitants. In this year the assembly applied to congress for permission to frame a state constitution. The struggle to prevent the extension of slavery into the new states led to the celebrated compromise of 1820, whereby it was determined that Missouri should come into the Union as a slaveholding state, but that slavery should never be established in any states formed in the future from the lands lying N. of lat. 30° 30'. The state constitution was framed by a convention of 40 delegates convened in St. Louis, July 19, 1820; and the state was admitted by proclamation of the president, Aug. 10, 1821. From this time until the present the progress of the state in ma: terial prosperity has been rapid; immigration has been constant, and agriculture, mining, commerce, and manufactures have been expanded into vast interests.
The first movement in Missouri toward secession was made on Jan. 10, 1861, when a bill was passed by the senate providing for the assembling of a state convention. This body was organized at Jefferson City on Feb. 28, and reassembled in St. Louis March 4. Popular feeling was opposed to secession, and the action of the convention, which adjourned without passing any measures of great importance, as well as of the legislature, was strongly in favor of the Union. Soon afterward United States troops began to assemble under command of Gen. Harney in St. Louis, which was regarded as an important military point for operations against the insurgent states. Some minor conflicts having arisen between the federal troops and the state militia, and negotiations for the maintenance of peace having failed, a proclamation was issued on June 12 by Gov. Jackson, calling into active service 50,000 of the state militia " for the purpose of repelling invasion, and for the protection of the lives, liberty, and property of the citizens." On the following day 1,500 United States troops under command of Gen. Lyon were moved from St. Louis to Jefferson City, where they arrived on the 15th. About the same time other troops were sent to "Rolla. Gov. Jackson, however, with other officers of the state government, had tied from Jefferson City on the 13th and gone to Booneville, where he summoned the state troops to his support.
Gen. Lyon immediately advanced upon this point, and on June 17 defeated the state troops, who subsequently retreated to Syracuse. The greater portion of the state at this time was under federal control, but hostile state troops were organized in the southwest under Gen. Price. The state convention, having been reassembled, on July 30 declared vacant the offices of governor, lieutenant governor, and secretary of state, and filled them by appointment. The seats of the members of the legislature were also declared vacant. On Aug. 1 Gov. Gamble, appointed by the convention, was inaugurated. On the '5th Gov. Jackson, at New Madrid, issued a proclamation declaring the separation of the state from the Union. Confederate forces were now assembling in large numbers in S. W. Missouri under Gens. Pillow, Hardee, McCulloch, Price, and Thompson. From Booneville Gen. Lyon's force moved to Springfield, and on Aug. 10 encountered a force of state troops and confederate soldiers from Arkansas under Gens. Price and McCulloch at Wilson's creek, near Springfield, where Gen. Lyon was killed. After the battle, the federal forces, under command of Col. Si-gel, retired to Rolla. On Aug. 31 Gen. Fremont, commanding the department of the West, declared martial law throughout the state.
A large federal force was now gathered at St. Louis for operation against the confederates in the S. W. part of the state. On Sept. 20 Lexington, defended by about 3,000 federal soldiers under Col. Mulligan, was surrendered after a severe conflict with a much larger army under Gen. Price. This caused Gen. Fremont, Sept. 27, to hasten from St. Louis to Jefferson City. The confederates, however,, numbering about 20,000, soon retired from Lexington to Springfield and further south. The advance of Fremont in the southwest, which was attended with numerous skirmishes, was made in five divisions under Gens. Hunter, Pope, Sigel, Asboth, and Mc-Kinstry. On Nov. 2 Fremont was succeeded by Gen. Hunter. The federal forces soon after began to recede, and the confederates to advance in the same direction. On Nov. 18 Gen. Halleck arrived at St. Louis to assume command of the western department. Certain members of the legislature, friendly to the confederate cause, having obtained a quorum of that body at Neosho, on Nov. 2 passed an act ratifying an arrangement between commissioners of the state and the confederate government, by which Missouri was to become a member of the confederacy.
At the beginning of 1862 nearly half of the state was held by the confederate troops; but in February a strong federal force under Gen. Curtis drove Price into Arkansas. Throughout the year the state was much disturbed by guerilla warfare. In the summer of 1863 the state convention which had been originally assembled to consider the subject of secession, and had been kept in existence by adjournments, passed an ordinance providing for the emancipation of all slaves in the state in 1870. In the autumn of 1864 Gen. Price, having again invaded Missouri, threatened St. Louis, and traversed a large part of the state, but was finally forced to retreat into Arkansas. The first election for state officers after the beginning of the war was held in November, 1864, the state having been governed during this period by officers appointed by the state convention. On Jan. 6, 1865, a convention assembled in St. Louis and framed a new constitution, which was ratified by the people in June following by a vote of 43,670 to 41,808. During the Avar Missouri furnished to the federal army 108,773 troops, equivalent to 86,192 for three years.
The 15th amendment to the federal constitution was ratified by the legislature in 1869 by a large majority.