I. A W. Government Of European Russia

A W. Government Of European Russia, bordering on Vitebsk, Smolensk, Orel, Tchernigov, and Minsk; area, 18,545 sq. m.; pop. in 1867, 908,85s. The surface is generally level and the soil fertile. The climate is mild and dry. There are several small lakes and marshes. The principal river is the Dnieper. Bog iron is found in abundance.

II. A City

A City, capital of the government, on the right bank of the Dnieper, 312 m. W. S. W. of Moscow; pop. in 1867, 38,922, including many Jews. It is the seat of a Greek archbishop, and of the Roman Catholic archbishop and primate of Russia and Poland, has 4 convents, about 30 churches and 20 synagogues, a gymnasium, a Greek and a Roman Catholic theological seminary, and many manufactories. It is a favorite residence of the Russian nobility. It was taken by Charles XII. in 1708, and recovered by Peter the Great in 1709. A portion of the Russian army was defeated there by the French, July 23, 1812.