Monkey, the common name of the family simiadeof the order quadrumana. The teeth are 32 to 36, and more or less approximate; the canines ore larger than the incisors, the upper on - separated by a considerable interval from the latter; the face denuded; the fore feet often larger than the hind, and the middle finger of both hands and feet the longest, opposable thumbs on fore and hind limbs, chiefly formed for grasping; mamime pectoral, two or four: stomach simple. Their food consists of vegetables and insects. Their habits arc gen-erally arboreal, and their habitat the forests of tropical America, Asia, and Africa. The mon-keys of of the new world are entirely distinct from those of the old; the former have been called timta plntyrrhini, or broad-nosed monkeys and the latter simiae catarrhini, or narrow nosed monkeys. - The platyrrhini have the nostrils wide apart, on the sides of the nose as it were; they have no cheek pouches nor callosities on the rump, and their long tails are generally prehensile; the hands have either four or "five fingers, the first or thumbs very slightly if at all opposable; the teeth are: incisors a canines (1/1)-(1/1), molars (6/6)-(6/6)=36; they inhabit the warm parts of South America. The marmosets have been described under that title, and the remainder of the tribe may be divided into howlers and sapajous.
The howling monkeys belong to the genus mycetes (Uliger), and are characterized by a pyramidal head, bearded face, pentadactylous hands and feet, and tail naked at the end on the lower surface; the lower jawr is very high, and the hyoid bone is expanded into a kind of drum, which renders the voice so resonant and loud that their troops make a most frightful noise during the night; they are the largest and fiercest of the American monkeys, resembling the baboons in disposition and facial angle, and the gibbons (hylobates) in their noisy and gregarious habits. The species are most abundant in Guiana and Brazil, where 30 or 40 are often seen on a single tree. The brown howler or araguato (M. ursinus, Ilumb.) is reddish brown, with long hair and beard, and bluish black face; it is nearly 3 ft. long, exclusive of the tail. There are several other species. The sapajous are more slender, with flatter faces, longer tails, and milder dispositions than the howlers, resembling the guenons or long-tailed monkeys of the old world. In the genus ateles (Geoffroy), the head is rounded, the limbs very long and slender, the fore hands without thumbs, or with very rudimentary ones, and the tail long and prehensile and hare at the tip beneath.
The coaita (A. paniscus, Geoffr.) is entirely black; it is a timid, mild animal, rather sluggish when not excited, but exceedingly agile among the trees; as it swings from the branches by the tail it looks not unlike a large black spider, and it is commonly called spider monkey; the tail is not only a fifth hand for purposes of progression, but an exquisite organ of touch. There are several species, which live in troops on the banks of the Amazon and Orinoco. Lagothrix (Geoffr.) differs from the last chiefly in the hands having a thumb and in the greater fineness of the hair; the L. Humboldtii (Geoffr.) is grayish black, about 2 ft. long, with the prehensile tail longer than the body. In the genus cebus (Geoffr.) the head is rounded, and the long tail is hairy throughout and prehensile; the monkeys of this genus are very active, excellent climbers, with well formed hands; they are small, mild and playful, and gregarious. The horned sapajou (C.fatuellus, Geoffr.) is blackish brown, with the face surrounded with whitish and the hair of the forehead rising in two lengthened tufts above the eyes.
The capuchin monkey ( G. capucinus, Erxl.) varies from grayish white to olive, with a black crown like a monk's cap.
Araguato (Mycetes ursinus).
Coaita (Ateles paniscus).
Capuchin Monkey (Cebus capucinus).
There are several other species, all lively and mild, inhabiting Guiana. In the genera hitherto mentioned, the nails are flattened and rounded; in the next three they more resemble claws, and the animals included in them have more carnivorous propensities, eating meat, insects, and small birds which they seize. In callithrix or tee-tees (Geoffr.), of which the type is the siamiri or squirrel monkey (C. sciureus, Geoffr.), the ears are proportionately large, the body slender, the tail longer than the body, entirely hairy, and not prehensile; the color is grayish brown, lighter beneath, with reddish limbs and black muzzle; the body is 7 or 8 in. long, and the tail 10 or 12. Other species are described, all active and beautiful, with carnivorous propensities; they inhabit principally Brazil and Guiana. In aotes (Ilumb.; nycti-pithecus, Spix) the two middle upper incisors are broad, and the canines moderate; the eye3 large; hind feet longest; tail longer than the body, not prehensile; nocturnal in its habits, living in pairs, resembling the lemurs of South Africa. (See Doukoticouli.) The last genus of the American monkeys which need be mentioned is pithecia (Desm.), characterized by a round head, short muzzle, long canines, tail generally shorter than the body, entirely hairy, and not prehensile; they are nocturnal and gregarious, greatly resembling human pigmies, and said to be active, strong, and almost untamable.
The couxio or black saki (P. satanas, Ilumb.) is dusky black, with a purplish tinge beneath, and with the tail is about 2 3/4 ft. long. The monk saki (P. ch iropotes, Ilumb.) is brownish red, and of all the American species bears the closest resemblance in its features to man; the expression of the face is fierce and melancholy, the chin is covered with a thick beard, and the eyes are large and sunken; it is said to drink from the hollow of the hand, and to be verv careful not to wet its beard. The cacajao or black-headed saki (P. melanocephala, Desm.) is about a foot long; the color of the body is yellowish brown, with the head black; there is no board, and the tail is so short that Spix has placed it in a new genus Iraehyurus; it is weak, inactive, and very timid. The yarke (P. Uutoctphala, Audebert) is black with the head whitish; the hair is very long. These and several other species inhabit the woods of Guiana in troops, where they are generally called night or fox-tailed apes. - Of the old-world monkeys, or eatarrhini, the largest have been mentioned. in the article- Ape, Baboon, Chimpanzee, Gibbon, Gorilla, and Macaque; so that it only remains to notice the smaller and long-tailed species.
This division of the monkeys has the same number of teeth as man, viz., 32, and similarly arranged, except that the incisors are more prominent, and the canines larger and separated from the incisors; there is a thin septum between the nostrils, hard naked skin or callosities on the rump, pouches on the sides of the face between the cheeks and the jaws; they generally have tails, though these are absent in the larger anthropoid apes; they are found in the warmer parts of Asia and Africa, only one species being naturalized in Europe (the Barbary ape on the rock of Gibraltar). The first of the monkeys not already noticed, connecting the guenons or long-tailed monkeys with the gibbons -or long-armed apes, is the presbytis or capped monkey; this has no check pouches, but has naked callosities, a long tail, and arms reaching to the knees. The P. mitrula (Eschs.) has the body 1 1/2 ft. long, and the tail about as long; the hair is bluish gray above and grayish white below, with a black line from the ears across the head; it is a native of Sumatra. In the African genus colohus (111.) there are no thumbs on the hands, and the limbs are long and slender as in the spider monkeys (ateles) of the new world.
The king monkey (C. polycomm, Geoffr.) is remarkable for the long, coarse, and flowing hair on the head, like afullthe body is shining black, and the. tail is pure white. The proboscis mon' hasashort muz-zie,tmt the nose lengthened into a kind of proboscis 4 in. long, at the end of which are the nostrils; the body is thick and the limbs stout; there are cheek pouches and callosities, and the tail is longer than the body; the color is reddish brown, with lighter patches on the lower back, and the face black; the body is about 2 1/2 ft. long; they are very active and noisy, and inhabit in large troops the forests of Borneo. The Cochin-Ohina monkey (lasiopyga nemeea, 111.) is a very singularly marked species; the muzzle is slightly elongated, the face bare, the hands longer than the forearm, with short and slender thumbs; it has cheek pouches, but no callosities, and the tail is long. The colors are brilliant, the upper part of the head being brown with a chestnut frontal band, long hair of cheeks dirty white, forearms and tail white, the hands and thighs black, legs chestnut, and body olive gray; it stands nearly 4 ft. high.
The first genus of the guenons is semjiopithecus (F. Cuv.), with round head, flat nose, long limbs, short thumbs, small cheek pouches and callosities, slender form, very long and thin tail, and canines much longer than the incisors; they inhabit India and its archipelago. The S. entellus (F. Cuv.) has a body about 1 1/2 ft. long and a tail 2 ft; the hind limbs are much longer than the anterior; the color is yellowish white, paler beneath, with the face, forearms and hands, legs and feet, black; it appears slow, sad, and stupid when at rest, but when roused is extremely active; it is very sensitive to cold, and is therefore rarely seen in menageries. It is called hoonuman by the Hindoos, who consider it a crime to kill one, and believe that the person who destroys one will surely die within the year; it occupies a conspicuous place among their divinities. There are several other species in Sumatra. The genus cercopithecus (Erxl.) differs from the last in the larger facial angle, more elegant shape and coloring, longer posterior limbs, and milder and more affectionate disposition; it has only four tubercles to the last lower molar, instead of five, as in sem-nopitheevs. The varied monkey (G. mona, Geoffr.) is the handsomest of all; the body is chestnut, upper part of head bright yellowish green, cheeks yellow, outside of limbs and tail blackish, with a spot of white on the nates; it is a native of Africa, cunning, active, intelligent, and playful.
The Diana monkey (C. Diaum, Geoffr.) is so called from the white crescent on the forehead; the chin and throat are white; it is about 1 1/2 ft. long with a tail of 2 ft. There are many other species, most, like the first two, from Africa. The mangabeys (cercocebus, Geoffr.) begin to come near the baboons in the more lengthened muzzle and receding forehead, though they have the long tail of the guenons; they are found in Africa and India. The green monkey (G. suborns, Geoffr.) is a native of Africa and the Cape Verd islands, and is very often seen in captivity on account of its lively and playful maimers; the color is olive green above, shading into white below, and the face is black. The malbrouck of Bengal (G. cynosurus, Geoffr.) is olive brown above, shading into white, with a white band over the eyes; it is an excellent climber and very active, and is often seen in menageries. The white-eyelid mangabey (C. fuliginosus, Geoffr.) is sooty black with white and very conspicuous upper eyelids; it is a native of Africa. These and numerous other species of Asia and Africa are generally easily domesticated when young; they are good-natured, playful, and free from the disgusting habits of the larger baboons. - The restriction of the catar-rhini to the old and of the platyrrhini to the new world prevailed in the tertiary geological epochs.
Fragments of a jaw and some teeth found in the eocene sand of Suffolk, England, were referred by Owen to the genus macacus under the name of M. eocenus; this furnishes a proof of the former more elevated temperature of Europe, monkeys having lived during the eocene period 15° further N. than now. In the miocene of France, in lat. 43° N., were found portions of a jaw and teeth, very anthropoid in appearance, belonging to what De Blainville has called pithecus antiquus, which some have thought nearer to man than is the chimpanzee. Other fragments have been found in England, Greece, and France, which have been referred to the genera macacus, pithecus, and semnopithecus. In the Sivalik hills of India have been discovered specimens of semnopithecus nearly as large as the orangs, and some resembling baboons. In South America, Lund found in Brazil, in lat. 18° S., specimens which he referred to the genera eel us, callithrix primcevus (twice the size of any living species), and protopithecus Brasiliensis, which must have attained a height of 4 ft,; he also found there ouistitis (jacchus grandis) twice as large as any now living.
Cacajao (Pithecia melanocephala).
Proboscis Monkey (Naaalla larvatus).
Entellus (Semnopithecus entellus).
Diana Monkey (Cercopithecus Dianas).