Monroe, the name of 17 counties in the United States.
A N. W. County Of New York, bounded N. by Lake Ontario and drained by the Genesee river; area, 682 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 117,868. The surface is generally level, with a slight inclination toward the lake. The soil is very fertile. The county is intersected by the New York Central and several other railroads, and the Erie and Genesee Valley canals. The chief productions in 1870 were 1,051,520 bushels of wheat, 802,-261 of Indian corn, 1,217,955 of oats, 480,968 of barley, 990,998 of potatoes, 134,184 of peas and beans, 70,095 lbs. of tobacco, 337,394 of hops, 385,443 of wool, 1,631,050 of butter, 39,558 of cheese, and 74,453 tons of hay. There were 17,151 horses, 16,163 milch cows, 13,172 other cattle, 70,546 sheep, and 17,371 swine. There were 1,160 manufacturing establishments, employing $10,951,090 capital, with annual products amounting to $23,745,-407. The chief industries, besides a large number of nurseries for fruit and ornamental trees and plants, were 17 manufactories of agricultural implements, 19 of boots and shoes, 65 of carriages and wagons,82 of men's clothing, 1 of edge tools, 20 of furniture, 4 of hats and caps, 22 of iron castings, wrought iron, etc, 17 of machinery, 3 of paper, 4 of perfumery and fancy goods, 39 of tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware, 17 tanneries, 30 flour, 17 saw, and 4 planing mills, 3 distilleries, and 18 breweries.
An E. County Of Pennsylvania, separated from New Jersey by the Delaware river; area, 600 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 18,362. The surface in some parts is mountainous, and the soil of the valleys is rich. Limestone and slate are found. It is traversed by the Delaware, Lackawanna, and Western railroad. The chief productions in 1870 were 37,062 bushels of wheat, 72,424 of rye, 175,040 of Indian corn, 113,470 of oats, 79,165 of buckwheat, 103,816 of potatoes, 12,039 lbs. of wool, 298,168 of butter, and 17,973 tons of hay. There were 2,870 horses, 4,206 milch cows, 3,713 other cattle, 3,974 sheep, and 5,441 swine; 12 Hour, 14 saw, and 2 woollen mills, and 12 tanneries. Capital, Stroudsburg.
A S. County Of West Virginia, bordering on Virginia, drained by Greenbrier and New rivers; area, 450 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 11,124, of whom 1,003 were colored. It has an elevated surface, and is bounded E. and S. by the Alleghanies. It is one of the finest grazing counties in the state. The Chesapeake and Ohio railroad passes through the N. part. The chief productions in 1870 were 52,817 bushels of wheat, 11,320 of rye, 170,721 of Indian corn, 59,062 of oats, 12,164 of potatoes, 123,221 lbs. of tobacco, 26,694 of wool, 163,540 of butter, and 5,388 tons of hay. There were 2,555 horses, 3,006 milch cows, 7,169 other cattle, 11,517 sheep, and 5,747 swine. Capital, Union.
A Central County Of Georgia, bounded E. by the Ocmulgee river and drained by several branches; area, 370 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 17,213, of whom 10,804 were colored. The surface is diversified, and much of the soil fertile. Gold, iron, granite, and plumbago are found. The county is intersected by the Macon and Western railroad. The chief productions in 1870 were 36,917 bushels of wheat, 241,251 of Indian corn, 21,286 of "oats, 35,188 of sweet potatoes, 68,692 of butter, and 10,434 bales of cotton. There were 1,041 horses, 1,789 mules and asses, 2,173 milch cows, 589 working oxen, 3,485 other cattle, 1,754 sheep, and 11,018 swine. Capital, Forsyth.
A S. County Of Florida, forming the W. half of the extremity of the peninsula, bounded W. by the gulf of Mexico, S. W. by the bay of Ponce de Leon, N. by the Caloosahatchie river, and N. E. by Lake Okeechobee; area, 3,060 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 5,657, of whom 1,026 were colored. In the S. part of the county lie the "Thousand Isles," and the Florida Keys are mostly included in it. The surface is mainly flat and marshy, and is partly occupied by the Everglades. The orange and the cocoa palm are indigenous. The productions are confined almost entirely to a few sweet potatoes, and most of the population centres at Key West. In 1870 the county contained 14,606 cattle. Capital, Key West.
A S. W. County Of Alabama, drained and bounded S. W. by the Alabama river; area, 980 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 14,214, of whom 7,572 were colored. The surface is moderately uneven and partly occupied by pine forests. The chief productions in 1870 were 232,486 bushels of Indian corn, 44,788 of sweet potatoes, 6,172 bales of cotton, 4,568 lbs. of wool, 45,037 of butter, and 10,629 gallons of cane molasses. There were 1,068 horses, 975 mules and asses, 3,134 milch cows, 1,134 working oxen, 6,406 other cattle, 3,237 sheep, and 10,746 swine. Capital, Claiborne.
A N. E. County Of Mississippi, bordering on Alabama and intersected by the Tombigbee river; area, about 700 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 22,631, of whom 14,000 were colored. The surface is a plain, with few trees and covered with rank grass. The soil is a rich calcareous loam. The Mobile and Ohio railroad and its Aberdeen branch pass through it. The chief productions in 1870 were 12,249 bushels of wheat. 415,153 of Indian corn, 55,651 of sweet potatoes, 47,380 lbs. of butter, and 8,502 bales of cotton. There were 1,934 horses, 2,084 mules and asses, 3,458 milch cows,.4,963 other cattle 4.272 sheep, and 19,599 swine. Capital, Aberdeen.
An E. County Of Arkansas, bounded S. W. by White river; area, 1,040 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 8,336, of whom 3,200 were colored. The surface is generally level, and much of it occupied by cypress swamps. t is intersected by the Memphis and Little Rock railroad. The chief productions in 1870 were 184.358 bushels of Indian corn, and 7,334 bales of cotton. There were 1,256 horses. 893 mules and asses, 1,925 milch cows, 379 working oxen, 2.892 other cattle, 624 .-beep, and 10,210 swine. Capital, Law-renceville.
A S. E. County Of Tennessee, bordering on North Carolina; area, 500 sq. m.: pop. in 1870, 12.589, of whom 1,235 were colored. It is drained by Tellico river, an affluent of the Little Tennessee. The Unaka or Smoky mountain lies on the S. E. border. The soil is moderately fertile. The East Tennessee, Virginia, and Georgia railroad passes through it. The chief productions in 1870 were 113,753 bushels of wheat, 415,010 of Indian corn. 56,367 of oats, 15,324 lbs. of wool, and 2.177 tons of hay. There were 2,334 horses, 2,539 milch cows, 6.415 other cattle, 8,346 sheep, and 13,422 swine. Capital, Madi-sonville.
A S. County Of Kentucky, bordering on Tennessee and drained by the head streams of Big Barren river and by the Cumberland river; area. 600 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 9,231. of whom 789 were colored. The surface is diversified and the soil fertile. The chief productions in 1870 were 37,367 bushels of wheat, 747,660 of Indian corn, 112,275 of oats 13,649 of Irish and 11,899 of sweet potatoes 674,696 lbs. of tobacco, 33,353 of wool, and 121,854 of butter. There were 4,686 horses, 2,148 milch cows, 5,178 other cattle, 11,-505 sheep, and 16,137 swim-. Capital, Tomp-kinsyille.
A S. E. County Of Ohio, separated from West Virginia bv the Ohio river; area, 420 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 25.77!). The surface is hilly and well timbered. It contains beds of coal, and some iron. The chief productions in 1870 were, 161,042 bushels of wheat, 629,846 of Indian corn, 300,425 of oats, 98,678 of potatoes, 2,845,525 lbs. of tobacco, 158, 066 of wool. 524,887 of butter, and 18,091 tons of hay. There were 7,060 horses, 8,358 milch cows, 10,048 other cattle, 42,198 sheep, and 18,661 swine; 29 manufactories of cheese 7 of furniture, 1 of woollen goods , 12 tanning and carrying establishments, 7 flour mills 7 saw mills, and 1 planing mill. Capital, Woods-tield.
A S. W. County Of Indiana, watered by "White river and its branches; area, 420 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 14,168. The surface is hilly, and the soil fertile. The Louisville, New-Albany, and Western railroad passes through it. The chief productions in 1870 were 130,-043 bushels of wheat, 454,275 of Indian corn, 105,415 of oats, 42,146 of potatoes, 15,947 lbs. of tobacco, 49,798 of wool, 253,078 of butter, and 7,311 tons of hay. There were 4,612 horses, 3,451 milch cows, 6,655 other cattle, 18,-272 sheep, and 18,614 swine; 9 manufactories of carriages, 1 of wagon material, 1 of agricultural implements, 2 of woollen goods, 1 planing mill, 12 saw mills, 6 tanneries, 3 currying establishments, and 5 flour mills. Capital, Bloomington.
A S. W. County Of Illinois, bounded E. by the Kaskaskia river, and W. by the Mississippi; area, 360 sq. m.; pop. in 1870,12,982. The surface is moderately uneven, and the soil is fertile. The chief productions in 1870 were 651,767 bushels of wheat, 543,718 of Indian corn, 152,451 of oats, 67,-119 of potatoes, 103,083 lbs. of butter, and 5,243 tons of hay. There were 4,205 horses, 2,715 milch cows, 1,616 other cattle, 2,020 sheep, and 13,286 swine; 6 manufactories of saddlery and harness, 1 brewery, and 7 flour mills. Capital, Waterloo.
A S. E. County Of Michigan, bordering on Lake Erie and Ohio; area, 540 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 27,483. Huron river forms the N. E. boundary, and it is intersected by Raisin river. The surface is level and diversified by prairies and woodlands. The valley of Raisin river is celebrated for fertility and beauty. The county is traversed by the Flint and Pere Marquette and the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern railroads. The chief • productions in 1870 were 249,086 bushels of wheat, 399,583 of Indian corn, 260,913 of oats, 268,373 of potatoes, 154,421 lbs. of wool, 894,265 of butter, and 44,896 tons of hay. There were 7,601 horses, 7,982 milch cows, 8,776 other cattle, 38,932 sheep, and 13,677 swine; 5 manufactories of agricultural implements, 10 of brick, 23 of carriages and wagons, 1 of tobacco and snuff, 8 flour mills, 10 tanneries, 33 saw mills, and 2 distilleries. Capital, Monroe.
A S. W. County Of Wisconsin, watered by the La Crosse, Lemonweir, and Kickapoo rivers and other streams; area, 900 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 16,-550. The surface is undulating or broken, and the soil fertile. It is traversed by the Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul, and the West Wis-i consin railroads. The chief productions in 1870 were 478,447 bushels of wheat, 183,119 of Indian corn, 291,469 of oats, 91,836 of potatoes, 479,209 lbs. of hops, 39,228 of wool, 391,-476 of butter, and 20,312 tons of hay. There were 3,232 horses, 4,621 milch cows, 6,583 other cattle, 12,341 sheep, and 6,413 swine; 5 manufactories of carriages and wagons, 2 of clothing, 8 of cooperage, 2 of machinery, 1 of wrapping paper, 3 of saddlery and harness, 1 of woollens, 14 saw mills, and 8 flour mills. Capital, Sparta.
A S. County Of Iowa, drained by several creeks; area, 430 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 1,272. The surface is diversified, occupied partly by prairies, and the soil is fertile. The Burlington and Missouri River railroad and the Central railroad of Iowa pass through it. The chief productions in 1870 were 159,815 bushels of wheat, 754,692 of Indian corn, 185,173 of oats, 64,073 of potatoes, 72,052 lbs. of wool, 282,452 of butter, and 21,206 tons of hay. There were 5,122 horses, 4,687 milch cows, 9,271 other cattle, 21,168 sheep, and 21,739 swine; 1 woollen, 4 flour, and 6 saw mills. Capital, Albia.
A N. E. County Of Missouri, watered by Salt river and its branches; area, 744 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 17,149, of whom 2,005 were colored. The surface consists in part of rich undulating prairies. The county abounds in coal, limestone, and freestone. It is traversed by the Hannibal and Moberly division of the Toledo, Wabash, and Western railroad. The chief productions in 1870 were 104,066 bushels of wheat, 589,127 of Indian corn, 304,275 of oats, 187,091 lbs. of tobacco, 68,772 of wool, 245,-975 of butter, and 12,635 tons of hay. There were 9,765 horses, 2,989 mules and asses, 5,813 milch cows, 13,345 other cattle, 25,533 sheep, and 30,320 swine. Capital, Paris.
Monroe, a city and the county seat of Monroe co., Michigan, situated on both banks of the river Raisin, 2 m. above its entrance into Lake Erie, with which it is connected by a ship canal, and on the Michigan Southern, the Flint and Pere Marquette, and the Canada Southern railroads, 32 m. S. S. W. of Detroit; pop. in 1850, 2,813; in 1860, 3,892; in 1870,5,086; in 1874, 5,782. The harbor is good, and is protected by points of land jutting out from the river. The surrounding country is fertile. The city has many substantial brick blocks, handsome residences, and fine shade trees, and a park has been laid out in the centre of the business portion. The river affords excellent water power, and there are several founder-ies and machine shops, wagon and carriage shops, three grist mills, two saw mills, two plaster mills, three sash, door, and blind factories, a cabinet and furniture factory, a paper mill, etc. There are four extensive nurseries, and 156 acres of land in vineyards. Near the city is a deposit of sand from which large quantities are shipped to Pittsburgh, Wheeling, and other points, for the manufacture of glass. Monroe is the seat of a young ladies' collegiate institute, established in 1851, and having in 1873-4 8 instructors, 109 students, and a library of 1,200 volumes.
There are a national bank, three Roman Catholic and three Lutheran schools, a union school, several ward schools, two weekly newspapers, and seven churches. - The first permanent settlement here was made by a small party of Canadians in 1784, who called the place Frenchtown. The first American settlement was probably made about 1793. In 1813 it was the scene of the massacre of several hundred American prisoners by the Indian allies of the British. It began to grow after the close of the war of 1812, and its name was changed in honor of President Monroe.