Montauban (Lat. Mons Albanus), a town of Guienne, France, capital of the department of Tarn-et-Garonne, on the river Tarn, 343 m. S. S. W. of Paris; pop. in 1872, 25,624. It stands on a high plateau, and has wide clean streets and a thrifty appearance. It contains a fine cathedral of the 18th century, and there is a stone bridge over the Garonne which dates from the 14th. There is a lyceum, a normal school, a Protestant faculty of theology, a public library, and a gallery of paintings which includes many by Ingres, a native of the place. The manufactures are extensive, embracing silks, woollens, porcelain, starch, candles, pens, and pharmaceutical products; and there is a large trade' in leather, grain, and wine, the surrounding country being very productive. Montauban was founded by Alphonse, count of Toulouse, in 1144, and was made the seat of a bishop in 1317. It became a Protestant stronghold in the 16th century, and its inhabitants were subjected to severe persecution. In 1621 it was besieged by the royal army under He Luynes, which at the end of three months, after numerous assaults, was obliged to withdraw. In 1629 it submitted to the royal authority, and its defences were razed.
Subsequently it suffered from the dragonnades.