Monterey, a W. county of California, bordering on the Pacific, bounded E. by the Coast range of mountains, intersected by the Salinas or Buenaventura river, and drained also by the San Benito and other streams; area, 4,536 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 9,876, of whom 230 were Chinese. The surface is traversed by several ranges. The best land lies in the valleys of the Salinas and San Benito, and the varieties of elevation permit the production of a great diversity of fruits, of which those that reach the greatest perfection are the fig, peach, apricot, grape, apple, pear, and olive. The county is thinly wooded except on the coast. Silver, copper, lead, quicksilver, and granite are among the mineral resources. Stock raising is the principal occupation. The Southern Pacific railroad traverses the county. The chief productions in 1870 were 744,093 bushels of wheat, 21,411 of oats, 681.115 of barley, 131,213 of peas and beans, 69,850 of potatoes, 59,120 lbs. of tobacco, 1,054,310 of wool, 423,385 of butter, 713,550 of cheese, and 18,927 tons of hay. There were 8,017 horses, 9,370 milch cows, 32,266 other cattle, 298,877 sheep, and 13,952 swine; and a number of manufactories. San Benito co. was formed from the E. part in 1874, reducing the area given above.
Capital, Monterey, on a bay of the same name, 85 m. S. S. E. of San Francisco; pop. in 1870, 1,112. It was formerly the seat of an important Roman Catholic mission, and was the capital of California till 1847.
Monterey, a city of Mexico, capital of the state of Nuevo Leon, on a river of its own name, 450 m. N. N. W. of Mexico; pop. in 1869, 13,534. It is on a rapidly sloping plain about 6 m. from the Sierra Madre, 1,500 ft. above the sea. The streets are regular, well kept, and well lighted; and the houses, chiefly of limestone, are well built and tasteful. The principal square is embellished with a marble fountain by native artisans. Among the more noteworthy edifices are the cathedral, two churches, one of which is among the handsomest in the republic, and the municipal and government palaces. Monterey has also a fine hospital, a prison, barracks, and abattoir, a seminary, two colleges, and 15 public and 20 private schools. The climate is comparatively mild, but subject to sudden changes. Monterey is one of the most prosperous manufacturing towns in Mexico. There are cotton, paper, flour, and saw mills, and manufactories of nails, bricks, carriages, morocco, candles, soap, sugar, beer, and brandy. Modern machines and implements are being rapidly introduced from the United States, whence are also imported large quantities of books and other merchandise. - The city was founded in 1596, on the site of the former Ciudad de Leon, and received the name of Nuestra Sefiora de Monterey. In 1777 it was made a bishopric.
It has frequently been visited by cholera and other epidemics. ^ In the early part of the war between the United States and Mexico, Monterey was a strong military position amply fortified, and held by the Mexican Gen. Ampudia with 10,000 regular troops. On Sept. 19, 1846, Gen. Taylor with 6,600 men attacked it. The city was bombarded in the morning, from batteries erected during the night; then a brigade under Gen.
Quitman carried the lower part of the town by assault, while Gen. W. O. Butler with the first Ohio regiment entered at another point. Gen. Worth carried the heights south of the river and the Saltillo road, and turned the guns upon the bishop's palace; next morning he stormed the height overlooking the palace, and turned its guns upon the flying Mexicans. The main body of the Mexicans retired step by step, taking advantage of the solidly built houses, and the Americans fought their way through the city, reaching the principal plaza on the 23d. Ampudia capitulated on the 24th. The American loss was 120 killed and 368 wounded; the Mexican loss was not ascertained.