Montreal, a city of the Dominion of Canada, in the province of Quebec, the largest in British North America, and the commercial capital of the country, in lat. 45° 31' N., Ion. 73° 35' W., on the S. E. side of a triangular island of the same name at the confluence of the rivers Ottawa and St. Lawrence. This island, which is about 30 m. long by 10 m. in greatest breadth, is 600 m. from the mouth of the river, 140 in. in direct line S. W. of Quebec, 310 m. N E. of Toronto, and 335 m. N of New York. It stands at the head of ship navigation, and at the foot of that great chain of improved inland waters extending from the Lachine canal to the western shores of Lake Superior. In 1861 the population of Montreal was 90,323; in 1871, 107,225 (including 77,980 Roman Catholics and 29,245 Protestants), two thirds being of French origin. It derives its name from Mont Real, Mount Royal, rising 750 ft. above the harbar. and covering at the- base an area of about 8 sq. in. It is built mostly of a grayish limestone from adjacent quarries, and with its handsome spires and glittering tin roofs, and the picturesque villus that stud its loftyv background, is seen to great advantage from the river.

The Roman Catholic parish church, Notre Dame, in Place d' Armes, commenced in 1824 and opened in 1829, is built in Gothic style and in the form of a parallelogram. It is 241 ft. long 135 ft wide, and seats between 10.000 and 12,000 It has six towers, one at each corner and one in the middle of each flank. The two on the mam front rise 213 ft., nearly twice the height of the others. In one of these is a peal of bells, the largest of which weighs upward of 20,000 lbs. the building comprises several aisles and chapel; it is 61 ft. from the foundation to the eaves, and its principal window is 64 by 32 ft. It is at present (1875) the largest religious structure in the Dominion, but it will be surpassed by the Roman Catholic cathedral now in course of erection on the corner of Dorchester and Cemetery streets, after the plan of St. Peter's at Rome. The English cathedral, in St. Catharine street, is a most perfect specimen of Gothic architecture; it is cruciform, built of rough Montreal stone, with Caen stone facings. Its aisles are 112 ft. long with an aggregate width of 70 ft., and its transept is 100 by 25 ft. Its spire is 224 ft. high.

In 1858 the number of churches in the city was 30; it is now 64, viz.: 9 church of England, 21 Roman Catholic, 5 Presbyterian, 5 church of Scotland, 5 Methodist, 4Wesleyan, 4 Baptist, 2 Jewish, 2 Congregational, 1 French Evangelical, 1 German Protestant, 1 society of Friends, 1 New Jerusalem, 1 Christian Advent, 1 Unitarian, and the St. George's Hall congregation. The principal benevolent institutions are the H6tel-Dieu and St. Patrick's hospitals, attended by the sisters of St. Joseph, the Protestant house of industry and institution for deaf mutes, the infant school, Providence Sacre Cceur, the lying-in and Providence asylums, the dispensary, the eye and ear infirmary, the Protestant and the Catholic Magdalen and orphan asylums, the Catholic benefit society, and the charities under the immediate charge of the sisters of charity. First among the educational establishments is the university of McGill college, which embraces the largest school of medicine in British North America, a faculty of law, normal and model schools, a high school, and a chair of English literature.

The college de Ste. Marie is directed by the Jesuits, and the Montreal college by the Sulpi-cians, who have charge also of the grand semi-naire and the ecclesiastical seminary at St. Sul-pice. Besides these are the colleges of Ste. Therese and the Assomption. In 1873 there were 9 daily, 2 tri-weekly, 2 semi-weekly, and 17 weekly newspapers published in the city, with 9 monthlies and 3 semi-monthlies. The most important monetary establishments are the Montreal bank, founded in 1818, capital $12,000,000; the Merchants' bank of Canada, $6,000,000; bank of British North America, $4,807,000; City bank, $1,200,000; Banque du Peuple, $1,600,000; and Molson's bank, $1,000,000. Most of these have handsome edifices. - The principal business streets are St. James, McGill, Notre Dame, Commissioner, St. Paul, and the main thoroughfares of St. Lawrence, Quebec, St. Ann, St. Joseph, and St. Antoine suburbs. Most of the leading wholesale dry-goods and hardware houses are in St. Paul street. Of late years some of the narrow and tortuous streets have been widened, but many more remain in their original condition. The Bonsecours market, a fine Doric edifice, contains the city council chamber, corporation offices, and a concert room which seats 4,000 people.

A more commodious market is projected, to cost $2,000,000. The court house, built at an expense of $300,000, is a lofty and spacious Ionic building about 120 ft. long. It contains a law library of 6,000 volumes. Back of it is the Champ de Mars, a fine military parade ground. In 1870, on the withdrawal of the British troops from Canada, this and all other imperial property in the city was presented to the Dominion government. In 1860 a crystal palace was opened for the exhibition of the products of the provinces. The merchants' exchange, in St. Sacrament street is a handsome structure in the modern Italian style, with numerous offices and a reading room. The old government house, in Jacques Cartier square, and Nelson's monument, are objects of interest. The geological museum, the university of McGill college with its museum, and the museum of the natural history society, are among the most complete institutions of the kind on the continent. The city is well lighted with gas, which was first used here in November, 1837. Water is obtained from the St. Lawrence, about 1 1/2 m. above the Lachine rapids, where the elevation of the river is about 37 ft. above the harbor. It is conducted to the outskirts of the city through an open canal 5 m. long.

At the end of this is a wheel house, from which the water is discharged through submerged archways under covered frost-proof passages extending above and below the building. There are two iron wheels, which force the water 206 ft. above the harbor, through a pumping main 2-f- m. long, into a reservoir with a capacity of 15,000,000 gallons. The works, which cost about $1,800,-000, were begun in June, 1853, and water was admitted in September, 1856. The climate of Montreal is subject to great extremes, the summers being hot and the winters severe. The thermometer ranges from 90° above to 30° below zero. - In the beginning of the present century vessels of more than 300 tons could not approach the city. In 1809 the first steamer, the Accommodation, was launched on the river. About 1854 the Montreal ocean steamship company was formed. Its first vessels were employed in the transport service to the Crimea, and it was not till 1856 that they commenced the regular mail service, which was fortnightly till 1859, when it was made weekly. The harbor has been much improved of late years. Ocean steamships of 3,500 tons can now enter it, and a fine basin has been constructed, capable of accommodating three first class steamships.

The river frontage is nearly 3 m. long, extending from the Victoria bridge to the village of Hochelaga. The wharves are more than a mile long, and of solid masonry, surmounted by a massive stone wall extending from the entrance of the Lachine canal to below the Bonsecours market. The Victoria bridge crosses the St. Lawrence from Point St. Charles at the head of the harbor to St. Lambert on the opposite shore, a distance of about 2 m. It was begun July 20, 1854, and completed in the autumn of 1859. (See Bridge, vol. iii., p. 275.) This bridge belongs to the Grand Trunk railway of Canada, and affords an unbroken line of communication with the United States. The custom house is massive and capacious, and has a fine tower. In 1855 the arrivals from sea were 188 vessels, of 47,-394 tons, and the clearances 135, of 27,493 tons. The following tables show the business of the port for four years:

Montreal, from Mount Royal.

Montreal, from Mount Royal.



















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In the exports for 1873 are included 2,764,-643 bushels of wheat and 360,108 barrels of flour. The import duties collected in 1870 were $4,128,052. The Lachine canal, 8 1/2 m. long, cut- arms- the S. point of the island, avoiding Lachine rapids. Since 1846 the waters of this canal and those skirting the river bank inside the upper basin have been turned to good account for manufacturing purposes. The principal manufactures are axes, saws, cprdage, printing types. India-rubber shoes, chairs, pa-, per, woollens, cotton bags, steam engines, nails, spikes joiners' finishings, and flour. The Grand Trunk railway connects the city with Portland, Me., and the principal places in the Dominion; and the Vermont Central and Montreal and Province Line railways, with their connections, give it direct communication with New York and Boston. Its trade with St. John and Halifax is opened up through the Intercolonial railway. - Montreal is the metropolitan see of the church of England in Canada, and the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop. It is governed municipally by a mayor, 9 aldermen, and 18 councillors.

The aggre-gate value of its real estate in 1856 was $25,-565,333, and its total revenue from all sources $285,032; in 1873 the value of real estate was $63,561,150, and the total revenue $907,-381 - The settlement of Montreal dates from 1535, when it was visited by Jacques Cartier, who named its mountain. The city was founded in 1042, on the site of the Indian village of Hochelaga. It was officially named Ville Marie, and for many years it was indifferently called by that and its present name. In 1758 it was well fortified. In 1761 it surrendered to the British; and it was captured by the Americans, under (Jen. Montgomery, in November, 1775, and held until the next summer. In 1779 it contained 1,200 houses, 500 of which were of stone and within the walls, the remainder outside and mostly of wood. Several times it has suffered severely from fire. In 1765 108 houses were burned,"and 215 families left destitute. The population was then about 7,000 and one fourth of the city, worth $464 -000. was destroyed.

In 1768 90 houses, two churches, and a large charity school were con-samed. In 1849 the parliament buildings and library were burned by a mob, when the government was removed to Toronto. Montreal was the headquarters of the British army in Canada until the final withdrawal of the troops after the consolidation of the provinces into the Dominion.