A Central Government Of Russia, bordering on Tver, Vladimir, Riazan, Tula, Kaluga, and Smolensk;. area, 12,854 sq. m.; pop. in 1867, 1,678,784. Its surface is low and undulating, and its soil is only moderately fertile. The climate is temperate in summer, but the cold is intense in winter. The navigable streams are the Oka and its tributaries, the Moskva and Kliasma. Cattle and horses are reared in great numbers, but the inhabitants are chiefly engaged in manufactures. It is divided for administrative purposes into 13 districts.
A City, capital of the government, on the river Moskva, 390 S. E. of St. Petersburg; lat. of observatory, 55° 45' 19" N., Ion. 37° 34' 4"E.; pop. in 1871, 611,970. It is surrounded by an earthen rampart more than 23 m. long. The enclosed space is an irregular trapezium, with an undulating surface, divided into unequal parts by the Moskva, which enters the circumvallation near the middle of the W. side and leaves it at the S. E. corner, finally joining the Oka, an affluent of the Volga. The little river Yausa, flowing from the northeast, joins the Moskva within the wall. About three fourths of the city lies on the N. bank of the Moskva, and one fourth on the S. bank. On the latter are the Sparrow hills, extending E. and W., which include nearly the whole S. part of the city. On the N. side the Kremlin (Russ. Kreml) occupies the principal elevation, directly on the bank of the river and very near the centre of the old city. From it radiate almost all the streets, like the spokes of a wheel, but with no regularity either of size or direction.
Around the Kremlin, at a radial distance of 1 and 1 1/2 m. respectively, are two wide and well planted boulevards, laid out after the conflagration of 1812, each forming an irregular circle, the inner one terminating on the N. bank of the river, the outer one crossing the river and enclosing a portion of the city on the S. bank. Some of the principal streets were widened at the same time, but most of the smaller ones, as well as many of the buildings, were rebuilt on the old sites, so that many of the ancient characteristics have been preserved. Narrow lanes open into imposing squares, and the most stately buildings stand side by side with rows of humble cottages. The city, which has been fitly described as at once "beautiful and rich, grotesque and absurd, magnificent and mean," is unequalled in pic-turesqueness. Its thousands of spires, domes, and minarets, diverse in form and color; its Kremlin with high walls and fantastic towers; its gardens, boulevards, and squares; the strange intermingling of pagodas, temples, and churches, of Chinese tea houses and French cafes, of Turkish bazaars and Russian market places, present a strange yet attractive panorama, combining the most striking European and Asiatic characteristics. - There are five principal quarters, the Kremlin, Kitai-Gorod, Bieloi Gorod, Zemlianoi Gorod, and the Slo-bodi or suburbs.
The Kremlin, the ancient citadel, is a nearly triangular enclosure surrounded with walls from 28 to 50 ft. in height and about 1 1/4 m. in circuit, with massive towers at each angle, and battlements, embrasures, and numerous smaller towers between. It is entered by five gates, to each of which is attached a religious or a historical importance. The principal one, the Spasski or Redeemer gate, is reverenced by all Russians, and no person, not even the emperor, passes it without uncovering the head and making obeisance to the faded picture of the Saviour above it. The Nikolski or Nicholas gate has an image of that saint over it, and is only second in sacred associations to that of the Redeemer. By the Troitzki or Trinity gate the troops of Napoleon entered and left the Kremlin. "Within the walls are cathedrals, churches, palaces, monasteries, and some of the finest public buildings and monuments of Moscow, with no symmetry of design, and of various styles and periods. The tower of Ivan Veliki (the Great), which looks down on all the surrounding spires, is an octagonal structure of five stories, its gilded cross being nearly 325 ft. above the ground. In it are hung 34 bolls, the largest of which weighs 64 tons.
The Tzar Kolokol (see Bell) stands upon a granite pedestal near its foot.
The Kremlin, Moscow.
Sacred Gate of the Kremlin.
The sacred buildings of the Kremlin are the cathedrals of the Assumption, in which all the Russian emperors since the days of Ivan the Terrible have been crowned; of the Archangel Michael, the burial place of the imperial family up to the time of Peter the Great; of the Annunciation, where the czars were formerly baptized and married; and the church of the Redeemer in the Wood, one of the oldest buildings in Moscow. Other ecclesiastical buildings within its walls are the Miraclemon-astery, the Ascension convent, and the sacristy or house of the holy synod, where are preserved the robes and the sacred vessels used by the different patriarchs. The palace is most-g modern, having been built chiefly by Czar Nicholas on the site of the old one burned in 1812. Within it are grand halls dedicated to the chief Russian orders of knighthood. The right wing, called the treasury, is devoted to the preservation of arms, armor, relics, regalia, and other treasures illustrative of the history of the reigning dynasty and of Russia. At the N. angle of the Kremlin is the arsenal, a massive building in front of which are ranged long rows of captured cannon, among them 3G5 pieces taken from the French in the retreat from Moscow. Opposite the arsenal is the senate house, where sits the high court of appeal. - The Kitai-Gorod (Chinese town), E. of the Kremlin, is surrounded by a wall with 12 towers and 5 gates.
It was enclosed by Helena, mother of Ivan the Terrible, when the Kremlin had become overcrowded. Within it the trade of Moscow has centred since 1596. The Gostinnoi Dvor, or great bazaar, is an immense building three stories high and covering three squares, intersected by numerous passages lined with shops. Each business has its separate department or street. The shops are small, but the store rooms above contain large quantities of goods, more than 75,000,000 rubles being invested beneath its roof. The Riadi also, a large open square laid out in narrow streets of booths, is in this quarter. In the Krasnaya Ploshtchad (Red place) is the cathedral of Vasili Blazhen-noi (St. Basil the Beatified), sometimes called the cathedral of Kazan, because it was built by Ivan the Terrible over the remains of St. Basil, to commemorate the taking of Kazan. It is a building of two stories, with 11 domes and cupolas, each of different form, height, and color, and each surmounting a chapel dedicated to some saint.
Other objects of interest in this quarter are the Romanoff house, where the founder of the present dynasty was born, the Strastni monastery, and the exchanges. - The Bieloi Gorod (white town) occupies the zone between the inner "boulevard and the Kremlin and Kitai-Gorod. It contains many of the principal buildings, including the governor's palace, a fine building on elevated ground; the assembly house of the nobility, the grand hall of which will hold 2,000 persons; the university and the medical academy; the military riding school (560 ft. long by 158 broad), the roof of which is unsupported by any pillar, and which affords ample space for the simultaneous evolutions of 2,000 infantry and 1,000 cavalry; the foundling asylum, an immense quadrangular edifice, four stories in height above the basement, and having sometimes 25,000 children under its support, within and without its walls; the post office, the theatres, many private palaces, several monasteries and nunneries, and numerous churches. Among the last is the great temple of the Saviour, founded in 1812 to commemorate Russia's triumph over Napoleon, and not yet finished. It is a regular cross of four equal branches, surmounted by a central cupola 84 ft. in diameter, and having an exterior height above the pavement of 343 ft.
The interior walls are cased with polished labradorite and porphyry, and adorned with paintings, and the outside is ornamented with bass reliefs representing Scriptural subjects and the events of the wars of 1812-'15. In the area in front are the statues of the Kussian generals prominent in those times. - The Zemlianoi Gorod (earthen town), so called from the former earth rampart, now the outer boulevard, occupies the zone between the two boulevards. It contains the depot of the commissariat, the depot for spirits, the commercial school, the imperial philanthropic society, and many other public buildings, besides a large number of fine private residences. The Zatchateiski monastery, which takes its name from the church dedicated to the Zatchatiye or conception of St. Ann, is a great ornament to this part of the city. The church is a Gothic building, noted for the elegance of its interior. The Slobodi (suburbs) constitute all that part of the city outside of the Zemlianoi Gorod. Within its limits are most of the great monastic and benevolent institutions, a large number of churches, many parks and handsome residences surrounded by gardens, an imperial palace, the empress's villa, the race course, the St. Petersburg railway station, etc.
Among the great hospitals are the Galitzin, Sheremeteff, St. Catharine, Alexander, St. Paul, and the military. The Novo-Dievitchie convent is a vast institution founded in the 16th century, with high walls surmounted by 16 towers. It has six churches, in the principal one of which are the tombs of many czarinas and princesses. Near it is the Dievitchie Pole or Maiden's field, where the people are entertained at the imperial, coronations. The Seminoff monastery, dating from the 14th century, is also surrounded by walls with high towers, one of which is 125 ft. high. It has six churches and a belfry 330 ft. high. The Novospasski monastery has five churches and a belfry 235 ft. high. The Daniloff monastery, with white walls, and the Donskoi, with red walls and battlements, have many churches, chapels, cloisters, gardens, and courts within their bounds. Without the St. Petersburg gate, a short distance beyond the circumvallation, are the Petrovski palace and gardens, a fashionable summer resort. Napoleon retired to this palace when the Kremlin became untenable. - Moscow has nearly 400 churches, all of the orthodox Greek faith, with the exception of the English and Roman chapels, a German and a French chapel, two or three Armenian chapels, and a Turkish mosque.
It is the seat of one of the three metropolitans of the Russo-Greek church, and is excelled in ecclesiastical importance by St. Petersburg only. It is the residence also of many of the great Russian nobles, particularly in the winter. Between it and St. Petersburg exists a literary rivalry, which has done much to stimulate intellectual activity. Its schools and seminaries are celebrated. The university, a state institution under the authority of the minister of public instruction, has 100 professors and teachers and usually about 1,500 students. It has a library of 160,000 volumes, a cabinet of coins and medals, museums of natural history, a botanical garden, chemical laboratory, and observatory, a medico-chirurgical school and fine anatomical theatre, and a printing office. Among the other educational establishments are a Greek theological seminary, a practical commercial academy and a commercial school, an institute of oriental languages, five male and three female gymnasia, two military gymnasia and a military school, theatrical, mechanical, agricultural, veterinary, and other special schools, and numerous district and parish schools.
The Catharine, Alexander, and Elizabeth institutes are for the education of young ladies of noble birth, and the Nicholas institute is for the instruction of female orphan children of the servants of the crown. There are several learned societies for the promotion of letters, art, and science; a public museum, with a library of 165,000 volumes and 5,000 manuscripts, a gallery of painting and sculpture, and a cabinet of coins and medals; and several other museums and libraries. Moscow is the centre of Panslavism, and, though not now the political capital, is the real heart of Russia.and the richest and most characteristically Russian of all the cities of the empire. It is the residence of the general commanding the military circumscription of Moscow, consisting of 12 governments, and of a military and a civil governor general; and is the seat of a division of the directorial senate, consisting of the 6th, 7th, and 8th departments for criminal and civil affairs. For administrative purposes it is divided into 21 districts. - On account of its central position and superior facilities for transportation, Moscow is the great entrepot for the internal commerce of the empire.
It has water communication with the Baltic, the Caspian, and the Black seas, and is connected by railway with St. Petersburg, Warsaw, Taganrog on the sea of Azov (by two lines, each with important connections), Nizhni Novgorod (with a branch to Kineshma), and Vologda. In the winter an enormous traffic is carried on by sledges with Tifiis and other places; and in 1874 a company was formed for trading with Afghanistan. It is also the centre of a great manufacturing industry, with several hundred establishments using steam power and the most approved machinery, and as many more in the surrounding towns and villages. Its chief manufactures are textile fabrics, principally of woollen, cotton, and silk, hats, gold and silver plate and jewelry, hardware, glass, porcelain, delft ware, paper, tapestry, chemical products, beer, brandy, and leather. Besides the Riadi and the Gostinnoi Dvor, there are many other market places where a large trade is carried on. The horse market is of great importance. The so-called winter market presents a remarkable appearance during the winter, when the fish of the White sea and northern lakes, frozen oxen from the Crimea, Caspian sheep, and deer from the banks of the Irtish and Yenisei, are piled together.
Industrial exhibitions and fairs often take place in the city. - Moscow is said to have been founded in the middle of the 12th centurv by George Dolgoruki, prince of Kiev. Ivan Danilovitch of Vladimir took the title of grand prince of Moscow in the early part of The 14th century, and it remained the seat of government from that time until the beginning of the 18th, when the administration was transferred by Peter the Great to St. Petersburg. Moscow was plundered by the Lithuanians and the Tartars of Tamerlane in the latter part of the 14th century, and subjected to many vicissitudes in the 15th and 16th. It was nearly consumed by tire in 1536, in 1547, and again in 1571, when the Tartars set fire to the suburbs, and a large part of the population perished. During the insurrections caused by the pseudo-Demetriuses (1605-'12), when the Poles and Cossacks took the city, it was again part lv destroyed. In 1812 it was entered by the French under Murat on Sept. 14, and on the 15th by Napoleon, who took up his residence in the Kremlin. The city, deserted by its inhabitants, was set on fire by order of the governor. Count Rostoptcbin, compelling Napoleon to leave on Oct. 19, and to take his final departure on the 23d, and resulting in the disastrous retreat of the French army.
The greater part of the city was then destroyed, notwithstanding the efforts of the French to stay the progress of the flames; but it was rebuilt within a few years.