Johann Jakob, a German jurist, born in Stuttgart, Jan. 18, 1701, died there, Sept. 30, 1785. He was educated at the university of Tubingen, where at the age of 19 he was appointed teacher, and in 1727 professor of law. In 1736 he was made director of the university of Frankfort-on-the-Oder, but resigned in 1739. In 1749 he founded at Ilanau an academy for the instruction of young nobles in politica science. In 1751 he returned to Wiirtemberg, where he was imprisoned from 1759 to 1704 for memorializing the duke on the rights of the estates. He was the first to give a systematic account of European international law. His works are very numerous, embracing the voluminous Deutsches Staatsrecht (Nuremberg, 1737-,54), with various supplements.
Friedrich Karl Von, a German publicist, son of the preceding, born in Stuttgart, Dec. 18, 1723, died in Ludwigsburg, Nov. 10, 1798. He was for many years imperial councillor at the court of Vienna, and afterward a member of the administration of Hesse-Darmstadt. His Der Herr und der Diener (1759), exposing administrative abuses, created a great sensation. He exerted a still greater influence by means of the Patriotisches Archiv, which he edited from 1784 to 1790, and which was followed in 1792-'4 by the Neues Patriotisches Archiv. He also wrote on international law, and is the author of a Geschichte der Waldenser (Zurich, 1798), and of Luther's Furstenspiegel (new ed., Frankfort, 1834).