Mosul, Or Mossul, a town of Asiatic Turkey, capital of a district of the same name in the vilavet of Diarbekir, on the right bank of the Tigris, 220 m. N. N. W. of Bagdad; pop. about 40,000, of whom 9,000 are Christians, 1,500 Jews, and the rest Arabs, Turks, and Kurds. Its fortifications are dilapidated. The streets are narrow and irregular; the houses, mostly built of a composition of pebbles, lime, and clay, have flat roofs surrounded by parapets, and the stairs are always on the outside. It is one of the chief centres of the Jacobites, their bishop, next in rank to the patriarch, residing in a neighboring convent; there are also United Syrian and Chaldean bishops, and the Chaldean patriarch of Babylon usually resides here. It once had considerable commerce, and it is still a thoroughfare for the trade between Bagdad, Syria, and Constantinople. Its manufactures are chiefly coarse cottons and shawls. In the middle ages it was noted for its muslin, with which it supplied Europe, and which derived its name from this place. The climate is very hot in summer, but the winters are mild and agreeable. In the vicinity are several hot sulphur springs which are much frequented.

Mosul is chiefly interesting as being near the site of Nineveh, whose remains exist in great mounds on the opposite side of the river, excavated by Botta and Layard.