Mythology (Gr., a saying, and, discourse), the science of myths. The ancient Greeks applied the term to all classes of narratives, but especially to their religious and poetic traditions of gods, heroes, and remarkable events, and hence, mythology, came to be a synonyme of, archaeology. Though mythology is still understood to embrace all the traditions and legends of a people, especially of ancient peoples, yet it is more commonly confined to accounts of and researches into primitive polytheistic religions. There are myths of all nations, and among uncivilized races they are still current and in course of formation. Max Muller's recent work on comparative religion and mythology (" Introduction to the Science of Religion," London, 1873), with an essay on the philosophy of mythology, is the first successful attempt at laying before the English public the results of the speculations of German scholars on this subject. German literature has of late produced an extensive array of works which undertake to describe the probable processes of the evolution of mythology, or religion, or moral and religious sentiments in general.
Such are Caspari's Urgeschichte der Menschheit (Leipsic, 1873), Hellwald's Culturgeschichte in ihrer na-türlichen Entwickelung (Augsburg, 1874 et seq.), and Peschers VölherTcunde (Leipsic, 1874). Max Müller says: " There is this common feature in all who have thought or written on mythology, that they look upon it as something which, whatever it may mean, does certainly not mean what it seems to mean; as something that requires an explanation, whether it be a system of religion, or a phase in the development of the human mind, or an inevitable catastrophe in the life of language." According to some, mythology is history changed into fable; according to others, fable changed into history. Some discover in it the precepts of moral philosophy enunciated in the poetical language of antiquity; others, a picture of the great forms and forces of nature, particularly the sun, the moon, and the stars, the changes of day and night, the succession of the seasons, and the return of the years. According to this last theory, to understand the origin and significance of myths, one must enter into the childlike spirit of those who conceived them. Man instinctively turns to the light.
In the second half of the day he sees the sun gradually sink and disappear, and feels the pleasant warmth depart His own body loses strength, and sleep overpowers him. At his waking he sees the light gradually return, the sun rise, the plants revive,and the animals come forth from their retreats, He perceives his powerlessness in these ever-recurring scenes, and he conceives a fear for the invisible forces which every day rob him of light, warmth, and life. Summer is followed by winter, and darkness and cold seem to gain daily in strength. Then comes spring; the powers of light and warmth regain the ascendant, and everything is rejuvenated and renewed. In tropical climes this change of season is ushered in by dreadful thunder storms and great floods of rain. Primitive races, the children of humanity, do not know what causes the warring of the elements. To explain it, they have to draw upon their imagination, and to believe what their fancy can supply. They consider themselves to be the centre of a great contest between beings who hate or love them, persecute or shield them. They give to these beings forms with which they are acquainted, and conceive them either as men or as animals. The earth is peopled from above, and hence there are in the heavens beings like those here below.
As the chief interest of the transmundane powers rests in man, the good and evil spirits are often in the midst of human habitations. They are difficult to distinguish from ordinary men and animals, but as they must be adored or propitiated, it is to be presumed that they bear some distinctive sign by which man may recognize them. Though it is possible thus plausibly to elaborate theories of the origin of myths, the earliest records of ancient peoples exhibit mythological conceptions far beyond these primitive ideas. Even Egyptian inscriptions, of which some are perhaps from 5,000 to 7,000 years old, bear witness to the existence of an already highly developed mythological system, unfolded by some sacerdotal class. - The inhabitants of Lower Egypt differed in religious ideas and practices from those of the upper Nile. At Memphis Ptah was the object of the highest adoration. He is the father of the god of the sun, and presumably the ruler of the region of light and the god of fire. He is symbolized by the scarabmis sarer, an insect believed to propagate without bearing.
Ra was the supreme divinity at On or Heliopolis, near Memphis. Manetho names him second to Ptah. The solar disk supported by two rings is his symbol, and the male cat, the light-colored bull, and the hawk are sacred to him. He is the god of the sun, rejuvenating every morning and creating all that exists below the heavens. Eight children of Ptah were worshipped at Ashmunein or Hermopolis. They are the gods of the elements, on whom the various forms of created beings depend. Female deities were worshipped at Sais, Buto, and Bubastis. Neith, adored at Sais, is the cow which bore the sun, the mother of the gods, who represents the creative power of nature. The goddess of Buto the Greeks compared to their own Leto, the parent of Apollo, the solar deity. Bast or Pasht, the Greek Artemis, had her temple at Bubastis. She is represented either with a solar disk on her head, or as having the head of a cat, the animal sacred to her, and the festivities connected with her worship resembled those of Venus in Greece and Rome. In Upper Egypt Amun, the Greek Amnion, or "the hidden," is the creating, sovereign god, represented by Ptah at Memphis. He is a phallic god, sitting upon a throne, and having upon his head the two plumes, symbolizing dominion over the upper and the lower country.
The goddess Maut or Mut, who bears the crown of Upper Egypt, is the mother and mistress of darkness. Shu, Sos, or Sosis, the son of Amun and Maut, was worshipped principally at This or Thinis and Abydos, as the spirit of the air and the bearer of the heavens. Turn or Atmu represents the sun in his nocturnal course, and Mentu or Mandu the setting sun. Turn, in some respects the equal of Amun and Ptah, generated himself, and is the father of the gods. Khem, whom the Greeks likened to Pan, is a phallic god. Khnum, Num, Knu-phis, or Kneph regulates the overflowing of the Nile. The goddess Hathor received adoration both in Upper and Lower Egypt, especially at Aphroditopolis, near Memphis, and at Edfoo and Denderah. To her are consecrated mirth, orgies, and the dance. She is generally represented as holdiug a tambourine in her hand, but sometimes merely as a cow. The mythological conceptions in regard to Isis, Osiris, and Horns have been given at length in separate articles. Seb and Nut, the Greek Cronos and Rhea, are the spirits of. the earth and the firmament. Typhon, says Plutarch, was called Set by the Egyptians; the ass was sacred to him, and his symbol is an unknown, strange-looking animal.
It is remarkable that even in their higher civilization the Egyptians continued to look upon animals as incarnations or representatives of their gods. The bull represented the gods who created life; the cow, the goddesses of conception and birth; the hawk and the cat, gods of light or of the sun; the scarabams, Ptah; the vulture, Nut and Isis; a sort of ibis, Thoth; and the crocodile, Seb. The priest recognized the incarnated gods among these animals by various signs, and introduced them into the temples. The holiest of the chosen animals was the bull in the temple of Ptah at Memphis. He was the famous Apis, born of a cow which conceived him by a spark from heaven, or by a moonbeam. (Sec Apis.) The ardea purpurea, a species of crane with two long plumes on its head, generally appears at the time of the overflow of the Nile, which is the fertile season in Egypt; and hence also these birds, called bennu by the Egyptians, were regarded as manifestations of the god of life. With this bird are connected the well known legends of the phoenix. Herodotus says the Egyptians were the first who believed in the immortality of the soul.
For the general character of their ritual, the "Book of the Dead," see Egypt, Language and Literatuke or. - The Acca-dians, who inhabited the lower regions of the Tigris and Euphrates before the time of Babylonia and Assyria, divided the universe into heaven, the earth and atmosphere, and the lower regions, ruled respectively by Anu, Ea, and Mulghe, probably corresponding to the subsequent first Chaldean triad of Anu, Nua, and Bel. Ea had a consort in Daokina. Ninghe and Ninghel seem to have been chthonian goddesses. The Accadian hell seems to have borne some resemblance to the Chaldean hell. As both demons and good spirits were to be found there, it is to be supposed that it was conceived of as a general tarrying place until the coming of the day when, as they believed, all the dead would assemble and live again. In regard to the subsequent Babylonian mythology, Diodorus says there were 12 gods of the heavens, each personified by one of the signs of the zodiac and worshipped in a certain month of the year. El or II was the highest of these gods, and Babel, meaning the gate of El, was named after him. It seems that all the gods were local, or that each city and its neighborhood was supposed to be under the special protection of a particular deity.
The importance of the various gods hence depended on the political rank of their districts. The gods of the Babylonian pantheon were associated also with appropriate goddesses. It is difficult to distinguish the attributes of El from those of Bel, whose name, meaning lord, is equally applicable to all the gods. That Bel and El were distinct gods appears from inscriptions which speak of them as being both lords of Sumir and Accad. Bel was the presiding god of Nipur, and retained his position as the national god of the Chaldeans until the rise of Babylon. Anu, Bel, Hea, Sin, Shamas, Bin, and the planetary divinities Adar, Me-rodach, Nergal, Ishtar, and Nebo (the divinities of the planets Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus, and Mercury), were the principal of the numerous gods mentioned in the inscriptions. Anu, who often has the epithet of malih or king, appears to have been the Anu-malik or Anamelech of the Scriptures. Hea appears as the lord of the earth and king of the rivers; and Anu and Bel formed with him at an early period a sort of triad, presiding over the other gods. The mythological ideas attached to Sin, Shamas, and Bin are clearer. Sin, the moon god, came into importance when the seat of government was removed to Ur, his special seat.
He had the symbol of the new moon, and was called the eldest son of Bel. Shamas, whose sign was the circle, came into prominence with the city of Lar-sa. He was god of the sun and ruler of the day. Bin is spoken of as the god who thunders in the midst of the heavens, in whose hand there is a flaming sword, and who is the giver of abundance and wealth. - The Himyarites of southern Arabia are said to have worshipped the sun, the moon, and minor demons. There are many indications that the Sabaeans gave to the sun a prominent place in their worship. Himyaritic inscriptions mention the name of Almakah, a moon goddess, and of Athtar, the Babylonian Ishtar. The Nabatheans are said to have worshipped the sun, and also Dusares, a god of war. The Arab tribes commonly symbolized their deities by white and black stones. The highest god of the Midianites and Amalek-ites, who occupied the Sinaitic peninsula and the neighboring districts, was Baal, whom also the Moabites adored. Thus the religious conceptions of the Arabs did not vary greatly from those of Babylon and Nineveh. Still more marked are the similarities between the worship of the Phoenicians (and the Canaan-ites in general) and that of the Chaldeans and Assyrians. But the former is more lascivious and cruel, and does not put the same emphasis on the worship of the stars.
The Phoenicians ascribed the authorship of their sacred books, which were said to be of high antiquity, to Esmun, one of their gods, and a series of hierophants, including Thabion, Isiris, Sanchuniathon, and Mochus. Philo of Byblos is considered to have given a Greek translation of the books ascribed to Sanchuniathon in his history of the Phoenicians, and the extant fragments indicate that he looked upon many of the gods as deified rulers and heroes. Amplifying and correcting his account from other sources, Max Duncker concludes that El was the principal god of the Canaanites also, and that Saturn was his planet. Above him, however, was Baal-Samin, the lord of the heavens, representing probably the beneficent effects of the sun. Springs and rivers also entered into the worship of the Phoenicians, and specially sacred was the Nahr Damur, north of Sidon, the Tamyras of the Greeks. The goddess Baaltis, mentioned by Greek authors as the Derceto of Ascalon and the Atargatis of Hierapolis, and compared by them to Aphrodite Urania, resembled the Bilit or Mylitta of the Babylonians, and the Ashera of the Hebrews. She was the goddess of birth and fertility, and symbolized the beneficent effects of moisture and water.
Her worship was often held at the seashore and on the banks of rivers, and her images sometimes represent her with a body merging at the waist in that of a fish. Many Phoenician colonies adored a Venus of the sea, and the goddess of Berytus was said to have come out of the sea, Dagon, the fish god of the Babylonians, was also regarded by the Phoenicians as a god of fertility, and connected with the water, though his province seems to have been the land; he was the inventor of the plough and the giver of crops. Moloch symbolized the parching heat of the sun. He was the god of fire, purifying as well as devouring. He was the god of war, and before a battle and after a victory he received large sacrifices of human beings. It is said that he was represented as a bull, or had the head of one; and as Adar, to whom the Babylonians gave the form of a bull, was the spirit of Saturn, it is probable that Moloch also was connected with that planet. Astarte, the divinity of Sidon, who as goddess of war held a spear and was represented in Carthage as riding on a lion, bore some relation to the moon, and was called the horned Astarte (Ashteroth Karnaim in the Scriptural form), probably in reference to the horns of the moon on her head.
She was the goddess of tire, and human sacrifices were made to her. She represented chastity; to serve her was to subdue all passion; and emasculation and other self-mutilations were highly pleasing to her. The attributes of both Baal and Moloch were united in Melkart, "king of the city," whom the inhabitants of Tyre considered their special patron. The Greeks called him Melicertes, and identified him with Hercules. By his great strength and power he turned evil into good, brought life out of destruction, pulled back the sun to the earth at the time of the solstices, lessened excessive heat and cold, and rectified the evil signs of the zodiac. In Phoenician legends he conquers the savage races of distant coasts, founds the ancient settlements on the Mediterranean, and plants the rocks at the strait of Gibraltar, the end of the world, as landmarks of the extent of his journeyings. As goddess of the moon Astarte was brought into connection with Melkart, the god of the sun, becoming his spouse, assuming the name of Milkath, and changing from the severe and cruel goddess of war and chastity into a gentle patron of love and fruitfulness.
Under the names of Dido and Anna the two sides of her worship reappear especially in Carthage. As Dido she was the wandering goddess of the moon, parallel to Europa, and possessed the attributes of Astarte only. Melkart finding and espousing her, she changed into Anna, the graceful. In like manner Astarte became an Asherah, and Artemis or Athena an Atargatis. The people of Byblos worshipped an addon (lord) Tammuz, who is generally identified with the Greek Adonis. The Phoenicians combined the deities of their cities into a sort of system, forming a circle of seven gods, called Kabirim (Cabiri), the powerful or the great, and children of Sydyk, the just. Among these gods were Khusor or Vulcan, the worker of iron; the female Khusarthis, or Thuro, the law, whom the Greeks call Harmonia, and who in many respects resembles Astarte; and Baal-Melkart, the patron of Tyre. An eighth god of this series seems to have been Esmun, "the eighth," who appears as a saving and pardoning divinity, and somewhat like the Thoth of the Egyptians and Hermes of the Greeks. The images of these eight patron gods were often curved on the bows of Phoenician vessels.
Next to the Kabirim were demons, and by degrees was formed a system of divinities of three times seven, or, with Esmun, 22 gods, arranged according to the Phoenician alphabet, and often put into fanciful relations to each other. - The mythological conceptions entering into the religious systems of other races of the East will be found treated in the articles Buddhism; India, Religions and Religious Literature of; Koran; Zend Avesta; and Zoroaster. - The principal divinities of the ancient Greeks and Romans are treated under their own titles; but the prominence of these in modern culture calls for a synthetical survey of the entire theogony and body of myths, and also for the characteristic features of the worship. Numerous systems of classification have been devised, but the most serviceable for ordinary purposes is a simple grouping according to the abodes and the spheres of activity attributed to the principal gods and godlike beings. The divinities of heaven are Uranus, Zeus, Hera, Helios, Selene, Eos, Iris, and Aeolus; of the water, Poseidon, Amphitrite, tritons, sirens, Nereids, naiads, Scylla, and Charybdis; of the earth, Ge or Gaea and Rhea; of the fields, woods, and gardens, Demeter, Pan, Faunus, Terminus, Flora, Pomona, Pales, Vertumnus, and nymphs; of the house and domestic life, Hestia, lares, and penates; of time, the Horse and Cronos; of the arts, trades, and sciences, Hephaestus, Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Hermes, and the muses; of love and joy, Aphrodite, Eros, the Graces, Hebe, Ganymede, Dionysus, satyrs, and Silenus; of health, Aes-culapius and Hygiea; of war and peace, Ares, Bellona, Eris, and Janus; of fate, justice, and retribution, Fatum, Nemesis, Ate, Moirae or the Fates, Themis, Erinnyes or Eumenidae, Harpies, Thanatos, and genii; and of the lower or infernal world, Pluto, Persephone, Graeae, Gor-gons, Manes, Nyx, and Hypnus. Exclusively Roman divinities among these are Janus, Faunus, Terminus, Vertumnus, Pales, Flora, genii, lares, penates, and manes.
In adopting the Greek mythology the Romans transferred to it the names of their own divinities and their own legends, or gave to the Greek names a Latinized form. Thus Cronos they called Saturnus; Uranus, Coelus; Goea, Terra; Helios, Sol; Zeus, Jupiter; Poseidon, Neptunus; Ares, Mars; Hephaestus, Vulcanus; Hermes, Mercu-rius; Hera, Juno; Athena, Minerva; Artemis, Diana; Aphrodite, Venus; Eros, Amor; Hestia, Vesta; Demeter, Ceres; Dionysus, Bacchus; Persephone, Proserpina; Selene, Luna; Eos, Aurora; Hypnus, Somnus; and the Moirae, ParcaB; and these Latin names have prevailed in modern literature. The Greeks considered their gods as possessed of human form, sometimes rather gigantic and superhuman, and of great beauty. They needed to cat and drink and sleep. They were subject to suffering, for they could be wounded, and though called blessed they were not free from sorrows and tribulations. They were holy and just, but irascible and hard-hearted, and at times seducers of human beings. They were truly divine, for they knew no age, and were immortal. They could foretell what would befall a person; but otherwise much must have been hidden from them, for even Jupiter could be deceived, and the other gods could deceive each other.
They sometimes moved among men in any form they chose, and visibly or invisibly. They could send signs and messages, such as were announced by the oracles of Dodo-na, Delos, and Delphi, or by the cries, chirping, eating, or flight of birds, or by thunder and lightning, or by the peculiar formation of the entrails of certain animals. They maintained their bodily and spiritual faculties,, in their original youth and strength by living on ambrosia and nectar. Certain animals and plants were their emblems or sacred to them. They were worshipped in images of wood, bronze, or marble, placed on hills and mountains, or in groves and forests, and generally removed from the thoroughfares of daily life. Only the lares and penates were household gods. The worship consisted in prayer, vows, or sacrifices. Prayer was commonly offered standing, the head covered, and the hands extended upward, or laid on the mouth, or touching the altars of the gods or the knees of their images. When the gods of the upper region were to be propitiated, the people dressed in white, and the ceremonial consisted partly in bathing and washing, and raising the hands toward heaven. When the divinities of the lower regions were invoked, the dress was black, the hands were pointed downward, and only black animals were sacrificed.
Bloody sacrifices, which took place in the earliest times of Greek history, were resorted to only in propitiation for a whole tribe or people. They consisted sometimes of human beings, and in such cases one commonly suffered death for all; but generally they consisted of eatable domestic animals. The blood of the slaughtered animal was poured upon the altar, the portion designed for the god was burned upon it, and the remainder was distributed among the priests and sacrificers. Other sacrifices consisted mainly in libations, as wine, honey, milk, and oil, and the burning of frankincense, and fruits and sweets. The myths or mythical traditions, and the heroes or demigods who figure in them, are an important element in the mythology of the Greeks and Romans. The myths may be divided into three groups: those with one hero, those with entire generations of heroes, and those which recount tribal or national expeditions. The principal myths relating to single heroes are those of Prometheus, Deucalion, and Tantalus. Among those of heroic races or families are the Corinthian myths of Sisyphus and Bellerophon; the Argive myths of Inachus, Danaiis, Danae, Perseus, and Hercules; the Attic myths of Cecrops and Theseus; and the Theban myths of Cadmus and Edipus. The myths of national expeditions are the Argonautic, the two Theban wars, and the Trojan war.
The myths of Evander, Aeneas, and Romulus are Roman. The heroes or demigods were of both divine and human descent, or rather human beings elevated to the rank and honor of gods. The masses generally looked upon them as having been the great men of primitive times, and paid homage to them only as such. In order to facilitate the understanding of the great deeds which the myths ascribed to them, they were imagined as having been persons of superhuman strength. They all differ from the gods in that they were mortal, though a few were permitted to continue for a while their existence in Elysium. Hercules is the only one who becomes immortal. The worship of heroes consisted in offerings of honey, wine, oil, and milk. Animals also were sacrificed to them, but with the caution of twisting the heads downward, and making the blood flow into a ditch. Further, the meat was not eaten, but burned; and only the tombs of the heroes could be used for their worship. - The mythology of the Scandinavian or Norse races, preserved mainly in the literature of Iceland, accounts for the existence of the world by placing in the beginning a Ginungagap, an empty space, with a Nifiheim, a region of mist, ice, and snow, to the north, and a Muspelheim, a region of warmth and sunlight, to the south.
The ice melting and dropping into Ginungagap, there came to be an accumulation of matter, out of which arose Ymir, the giant, who brought forth Reimthursen, the frost. His nurse was Audhumla, the cow, which lived by licking the ice, and in consequence of her licking appeared the form of Buri, the father of Burr, the father of Odin. Vili and Ve, Odin's brothers, overthrew the dynasty of Ymir and Reimthursen. Ymir's flesh, blood, and bones became the earth, sea, and mountains, and his skull and brains the heavens and the clouds. In Jötunheim were the giants, and Ymir's eyebrows served as a wall between them and the inhabitants of the earth. The clouds and the wind were subject to Odin, the god of war, and the father of Saga, the goddess of poetry. On his shoulders sat the ravens Herginn and Muninn, which he sent out to bring him news of passing events. At his side sat Frigga, his favorite, who controls all nature. Freyja, the custodian of the dead, claimed half the heroes slain in battle. Both were also goddesses of love, and at different times the one or the other was considered the wife of Odin. Thor, Odin's son, the god of thunder and lightning, held a hammer as a symbol of his authority, and threw down from his abode in heaven thunderbolts made by the black elves that dwelt in the interior of the earth.
He presided also over the domestic hearth and the fruitfulness of wedlock. Bal-dur or Baldr, the sun, the father of daylight, had been made invulnerable except by the mistletoe, and Loki, son of the giant Farbauti and god of mischief, ordered Hodr, the blind god of winter, to slay Baldur with a twig of it. Loki thought to escape by plunging into the sea and changing into a salmon, but was caught in a net, and bound till the judgment day. Hodr was killed by Bali, Odin's son. The wolf Fenris, the progeny of Loki, bit off the hand of Tyr, the god of war and athletic sports, and was also bound, and on the judgment day he will be slain by Vidarr, the god of twilight, next in strength to Thor. The serpent of Mid-gard (which is the middle world, between Mus-pelheira and Nitlheim, and formed from Ymir's body) was thrown by Odin into the sea, where it grew so large as to encircle the whole world; as was also Hel, a goddess half black and half blue, who lived upon the brains and marrow of men. On Midgard was Asgard, the dwelling of the Asa race, namely, Odin and the twelve Aesir: Thor, Baldur, Freyr, Tyr, Bragi, Ilodr, Heimdalr, Vidar, Vali, Ullr, Ve, and Forseti. The gods and goddesses lived apart, the former in the mansion called Gladsheim and the latter in Vingolf. In Valhalla Odin caroused with dead heroes, and was waited upon by Oskmey-jar or Valkyries. Freyr, whose attributes are not clearly defined, is called by Dasent the god of rain, sunshine, and fruits, whom Gridr captivated with her beauty.
Iduna, the wife of Bragi, the god of poetry and eloquence, dwelt in the lower world, where she was custodian of the golden apples with which the gods rejuvenated themselves.. Ullr was god of the chase, and Mimir of wisdom and knowledge. Heimdalr is the watchman of the bridge Bi-frasta, that leads to the lower world, and his horn will give the signal for the great battle of the gods at the end of time. In the article Edda are some additional details of the mythological conceptions of the Scandinavians. - The mythology of the Germans is built upon the same foundation as that of the Scandinavians, and many portions of it are identical. The principal deities are the same. Wuotan, or Wo-tan according to the Low Germans, is the Odin of the North. The atmosphere and the heavens are subject to him, and on him depends the fruitfulness of the earth. He takes pleasure in the brunt of battle and in the excitement of the chase. He rides upon a white horse, and his gigantic form is robed in a large dark mantle. Donar, the Scandinavian Thor, the god of storms, swings a heavy hammer or a thunderbolt. He is the giver of increase, and the fruits of the field, the cattle, and wedlock are under his protection.
The Tyr of the Norse finds a counterpart in the Tui or Saxnot of the Saxons, the Ziu of the Swabians, and the Eru of the Bavarians. His symbol is the sword; he is the god of war, but originally he was a god of heaven. Fro. who seems to have answered to Freyr, unites various not well defined mythological attributes. Baldur or Phol, who was principally worshipped in Thuringia, is a youthful warrior, and somewhat connected with the blessings of the season of spring. The Frisians gave him a son named Fosite, the Forseti of Norse mythology. The goddess called Ner-thus by Tacitus, which name was subsequently corrupted into Hertha, whom the Franks worshipped as Holda or Holle, the Bavarians as Perchta, and the Low Germans as Fria or Frigg, appears to have been known first to the early inhabitants of the island of Rügen in the Baltic. Her attributes are those of kindness and motherly care. She presides over the blessings of wedded life, house, and field, and rules the land of the dead. For the minor deities of the Germanic races, rather of a legendary than of a mythical character, see Fairies. See also Demoxology. - See Creuzer, Symbolih und My-thologie der alien Volkes (3d ed., Leipsic, 1837-'44); Keightley, " Mythology of Ancient Greece and Italy" (2d ed., London, 1865); Preller, Ro-mische Mythologie (2d ed. by Kohler, Berlin, 1865); Leitschuh, Die Entstehung der Mythologie und die EnticicTcelung der griechischen Religion (Wurzburg, 1867); Baring-Gould, " Origin and Development of Religious Belief " (London, 1869-'70); George W. Cox, "The Mythology of the Aryan Nations" (London, 1870); Schomann, Griechische Alterthtimer (3d ed., Berlin, 1871-3); Preller, Griechische Mythologie (3d ed. by Plew, Berlin, 1872 et seq.); Kirchner, Grundrisse der Mythologie and Sagengeschichte der Griechen und Romer (Gera, 1872); Gubernatis, " Zoological Mythology" (London, 1873); Murray, "Manual of Mythology" (London, 1873); Petiscus, Der Olymp, oder Mythologie der Griechen und Ro-mer (Leipsic, 1873); Delaunay, Moines et Si-oylles dans l'antiquite judeo-grecque (Paris, 1874); Kroon, Mythologisch woordenooeh (Arn-heim, 1874 et seq.); Holtzmann, Deutsche Mythologie (Leipsic, 1874); Lenormant, La magie chez les Chaldeens (Paris, 1874); Schrader, Ishtar (Berlin, 1874); "Records of the Past: Translations of Assyrian and Egyptian Monuments" (London, 1874 et seq.); and Duncker, Geschichte des Alterthums (4th ed., Leipsic, 1874).