Navajos, the most northerly band of the Apache Indians, inhabiting the table lands and mountains of a district on the San Juan and Little Colorado, called by the Spaniards Navajo;!, whence they were styled Apaches de Nava-joa. They call themselves Yutahenne. They are by far the most civilized tribe of the Athain stock, having evidently acquired many arts from the semi-civilized Indians of New Mexico. They cultivate the soil rudely but extensively, Col. Baker in 1859 estimating their farms at 20,000 acres; and having at an early period obtained horses, cattle, sheep, and goats, they soon had large herds and flocks, and learned to spin and weave cotton and wool. Their blankets are highly prized, bringing from $80 to $150. Their houses however are very rude, being merely conical structures of poles, covered with branches. Like all the Apaches, they have warred on the Mexicans from an early period. When they came within the limits of the United States they occupied Sevol-leta and nine other fixed towns, all under one head chief. The Mexicans frequently attempted to reduce them. Doniphan's expedition in 1846, Wilkes's in 1847, Newby's in 1848, and Washington's in 1810 were failures.
Sumner in 1851 pushed into the heart of their country, and planted Fort Defiance at Canoncito Bonito, but \va§ forced to retreat. A series of treaties were broken as soon as made; and the Nava-jos kept on killing and plundering till Col. Carson in 1803, in a winter campaign, conquered and compelled them to leave their country and remove to Bosque Redondo, on Pecos river, at a distance from their fastnesses. Here they were held as prisoners by government to the number of 7,000 for several years, at great expense. But they were constantly exposed to attacks from the Comanches and other hostile tribes; the site was unhealthy, the soil poor, and the water bad. On June 1, 1868, Gen. Sherman and Col. Tappan as commissioners concluded a treaty, and the next month the Nuvajos were removed to Fort Wingate, and in 18639 to their old country around Fort De- I fiance, 6,120 square miles being assigned as their reservation. One band, Sandoval's, has been friendly from the first. In 1872 the Navajos on the reservation numbered 9,114, with three outlying bands. They had 130,000 sheep and goats, 10,000 horses, and some cat-tle. They were peaceful and well disposed, and received $91,000 a year in annuities. In 18,0a Presbyterian mission and school were established, but the school soon ceased.
The Navajos are distinguished by a full round eye They dress decently, covering the whole body, in textures of their own weaving, generally of bright colors; and the warriors wear a helmet-shaped deerskin cap with feathers. Their arms are bows, lances, and rawhide shields.