New Brunswick, a province of the Dominion of Canada, situated between lat. 44° 35' and 48° 5' N., and lon. 63° 47' and 69° 5' W.; average length N. and S. 180 m., average breadth 150 m.; area, 27,322 sq. m. It is bounded N. by Quebec and the bay of Cha-leurs, E. by the gulf of St. Lawrence and Northumberland strait, which separates it from Prince Edward island, S. by Nova Scotia and the bay of Fundy, W. by Maine, and N. W. by Quebec. The province is divided into 15 counties, viz.: Albert, Carleton, Charlotte, Gloucester, Kent, Kings, Madawaska, Northumberland, Queens, Restigouche, St. John, Sunbury, Victoria, Westmorland, and York. These are subdivided into parishes. There are two cities: St. John (pop. in 1871, 28,805), the commercial metropolis, and Fredericton (pop. 6,006), the capital; and four incorporated towns: Moncton, Portland, St. Stephen, and Woodstock. The population of the province in 1784 was 11,457; in 1824, 74,176; in 1834, 119,457; in 1840, 156,162; in 1851, 193,800; in 1861, 252,047; in 1871, 285,594. Of the last number 237,837 were born in the province, 5,239 in Nova Scotia, 2,439 in Quebee, and 220 in other parts of Canada, 2,409 in Prince Edward island and Newfoundland, 23,065 in Ireland, 4,691 in Scotland, 4,558 in England and Wales, and 4,088 in the United States; 100,643 were of Irish, 83,598 of English, 44,907of French, 40,858 of Scotch, 6,004 of Dutch, 4,478 of German, 1,701 of African, and 1,096 of Welsh origin, and 1,403 were Indians (chiefly Micrnaes and Malicetes); 145,888 were males and 139,706 females.
There were 49,384 families and 43,579 occupied dwellings. There were 19,002 persons over 20 years of age unable to read (10,197 males and 8,805 females), and 27,669 (13,245 males and 14,424 females) unable to write. There were 306 deaf and dumb persons, 216 blind, and 788 of unsound mind. - The surface of New Brunswick is generally flat or undulating. There are some elevated lands skirting the bay of Fundy and the St. John river, but the only section of a mountainous character is that on the border of Quebec in the north, where the country is beautifully diversified by oval-topped hills, from 500 to 800 ft. high, surrounded by valleys and table lands. The shores of the gulf of St. Lawrence and Northumberland strait, for about 15 m. inland, are low and skirted with marshes. The coast line of the province is 545 m. long, not including indentations of the land, and is interrupted only at the point of junction with Nova Scotia," where an isthmus not more than 14 m. wide connects the two provinces, and separates the waters of Northumberland strait from those of the bay of Fundy. The coast of this bay is generally bold and rocky. There are numerous good harbors, particularly on the S. portion of the E. coast.
The principal bays are the Nepisi-guit, opening into the bay of Chaleurs; Miramichi and Shediac, on the E. coast; Passama-jmoddy, at the S. W. extremity of the province; and the harbor of St. John, on the S. coast. Hay Verte and Chignecto bay are op-posite each other, the former E. and the latter W. of the isthmus that connects with Nova Scotia. The principal islands are Grand Manan, at the entrance of the bay of Fundy; Campo Hello and Deer islands, in Passamaquoddy bay; Portage island, in Miramichi bay; and Shippegan and Miscou islands, at the N. E. extremity of the province. The largest river is the St..John, which for 75 m. below the mouth of the St. Francis forms the boundary with Maine, and afterward entering the province flows S. F. for 225 m., emptying into the bay of Fundy at St. John. It is navigable by vessels of 120 tons to Fredericton, 84 m. from its mouth, and by small steamers to Grand Falls, 140 m. further up. The chief tributaries are the St. Francis (which separates the W. extremity of the province from Maine), Mada-waska, and Green, from the north; the To-bique, Nashwaak, Salmon, Washademoak, and Kennebaccasis, from the east; and the Aroostook and Oromocto, from the west. The St. Croix forms the S. portion of the Maine boundary.
It is about 125 m. long, and is navigable to St. Stephen, 15 m. above its mouth in Passamaquoddy bay. The Peticodiac, about 100 m. long, empties into the bay of Fundy near its head; it is navigable by large vessels for 25 m., and for schooners of 60 or 80 tons to the head of tide, 12 m. further. The N. portion of the province is drained by the Res-tigouche, which forms a part of the boundary with Quebec, and empties into the bay of Chaleurs. It is navigable by large vessels for 18 m. Its chief tributaries in New Brunswick are the Upsalquitch and Wetomkegewick. The Nepisiguit river after a course of about 100 m. empties into the bay of the same name. The Miramichi river flows N. E. about 225 m., and discharges into Miramichi bay; it is navigable by large vessels for 25 m., and for schooners to the head of tide, 20 m. further up. The Richi-bucto river, navigable for small vessels for 15 m., empties into the gulf of St. Lawrence, at Richibucto, near the entrance of Northumberland strait. The principal lakes are Grand lake, 25 m. long by 6 m. wide, which discharges into the river St. John, 50 m. from the sea; Oromocto lake, which gives rise to the river of the same name; and Grand lake on the Maine border, the source of the St. Croix. - The geological structure of the province is not remarkable.
The N. W. portion is occupied by the upper Silurian formation. Bordering on this, and stretching S. W. across the province from Nepisiguit bay, crossing the St. John river just above Fredericton, are two belts of lower Silurian, enclosing a belt of granitic and similar rocks. S. E. of these the country is carboniferous. Small areas of the Devonian, Huronian, and Laurentian formations occur along the bay of Fundy. Gypsum, freestone, and grindstone abound. The deposits of bituminous coal in the central portion of the province are very extensive, but the mineral occurs in thin seams. Only a small quantity is mined. Salt springs are numerous. Copper is found on the banks of the Nepisiguit river and plumbago near St. John. Antimony, iron ore, manganese, and other minerals also occur in considerable quantities. - The climate is healthy, though it is subject to great extremes. The S. portion has a considerably milder temperature than the N., but the whole country is covered with snow for about four months of the year (from December to April). S. W. winds in summer often produce dense fogs on the bay of Fundy, which extend 15 or 20 m. inland. The autumn is long, and is the pleasantest season of the year, the air being clear and dry.
The extremes of temperature in the interior are - 30° and + 95°. - E. of the St. John the soil is deep and fertile; W. of that river it is poorer. Indian corn is grown in the south; wheat, barley, oats, buckwheat, rye, potatoes, turnips, peas, beans, etc, yield abundantly. Apples, pears, plums, cherries, currants, gooseberries, and strawberries thrive. Grass grows luxuriantly, especially on the extensive marshes that have been reclaimed from the sea, and the greater portion of every large farm is devoted to its production. The forests of pine, spruce, cedar, etc, which cover a large portion of the province, yield large quantities of timber for export and ship building; and lumbering is one of the chief industries of the people. Among wild animals are bears, moose and other deer, foxes, wild cats, raccoons, beavers, otters, and porcupines. The rivers and lakes abound in salmon, trout, chub, eels, and perch; and cod, mackerel, and herring are abundant on the coast, particularly in the bay of Chaleurs and the bay of Fundy. Lobsters abound, and there are prolific oyster beds on the E. coast. - The principal articles of manufacture are lumber, leather, woollen goods, wooden ware, paper, iron castings, mill machinery, locomotives, steam engines, etc.
Ship building is extensively carried on. (For industrial statistics, see Appendix to this volume.) The fisheries and foreign commerce are important interests. The number of men employed in the fisheries for the year ending June 30, 1874, was 6,556; number of vessels, 131, of 2,518 tons; of boats, 3,351; value of vessels and boats, $235,211; of nets and weirs, $240,461. The value of the catch was $2,685,793 91, of which salmon, herring, cod, and lobsters constituted the largest part; the other kinds were alewives, hake, pollack, oysters, smelts, mackerel, eels, bass, shad, and haddock. The value of goods entered for consumption from foreign countries for the same period was $10,223,871, including $5,876,058 from Great Britain, $3,-894,484 from the United States, $320,516 from the West Indies, and $94,879 from France. The total value of exports was $6,503,934 (including $4,201,438 to Great Britain, $1,247,-364 to the United States, $525,548 to the West Indies, $77,375 to South America, $26,716 to France, $15,880 to the Canary islands, $14,239 to Holland, and $11,023 to Newfoundland), of which $361,977 represented foreign, and $6,-141,957 Canadian produce, viz.: products of the mine, $223,340; of the fisheries, $392,772; of the forest, $4,711,812; animals and their produce, $208,902; agricultural products, $110,-856; manufactures, $477,898; miscellaneous articles, $15,377. The imports consist chiefly of cottons, woollens, fancy goods, hardware, iron, flour, tea, sugar, molasses, and spirits.
The number of entrances was 2,784, with an aggregate tonnage of 775,638, of which 1,275, of 390,290 tons, were in ballast; clearances, 2,662, with an aggregate tonnage of 799,265, of which 25, of 12,351 tons, were in ballast; built during the year, 96 vessels, with an aggregate tonnage of 46,663. The number of vessels of all kinds belonging in the province at the close of 1873 was 1,147, with an aggregate tonnage of 277,850. - The statistics of the railroads in operation in the province for 1874 are contained in the following table:
Miles in operation in the province.
European and North American
St. John to Bangor, Me. (206 m.)...............................
Fredericton Junction, on European and North American railway, to Fredericton ..............................
St. John to Halifax, N. S. (276 m.)..............................
Painsec Junction to Point du Chene
Fredericton to Edmundston (170 m.); completed to Florenceville..
Woodstock Junction to Woodstock
New Brunswick and Canada.........
St. Anrews to Woodstock
Watts Junction to St. Stephen
Debec Junction to Houlton, Me. (8 m).
The Intercolonial line is to be extended from Moncton N. and then W. to Rivière du Loup, Quebec, a distance of 374 m., of which about 200 m. He in New Brunswick. The New Brunswick railway is intended to connect at Edmundston with the New Brunswick and Quebec line for Rivière du Loup, 90 m. further. There are four banks, with an aggregate capital of upward of $1,500,000; eight branches of banks of other provinces; and a savings bank at St. John. The deposits in the government savings banks, exclusive of post office savings banks, on May 31, 1874, amounted to $1,109,705. - The chief executive officer is the lieutenant governor, appointed by the governor general of the Dominion in council for five years, assisted by an executive council of nine members (president of the council, secretary and receiver general, attorney general, chief commissioner of public works, surveyor general, and four without office), appointed by himself and responsible to the assembly. The legislative authority is exercised by a legislative council of 15 members, appointed by the lieutenant governor in council for life, and a house of assembly of 41 members, elected by districts.
Voting is by ballot, and a small property qualification is required for voters, who must also be male British subjects and 21 years of age. The judicial power is vested in a supreme court, consisting of a chief justice and four associate justices, who hold circuit courts in each county, county and probate courts, and justices of the peace. The court of divorce and matrimonial causes is held by a single judge, and there are a vice-admiralty court with a judge and deputy judge, and a court for the trial and punishment of piracy and other offences on the high seas, consisting of the lieutenant governor, judges of the supreme court, and other officials. Now Brunswick is represented by 12 senators and 16 members of the house of commons in the Dominion parliament. The balance in the treasury on Oct. 31, 1873, was $151,400 38; receipts for the year 1873-'4, $591,404 50, including $516,155 from the Dominion government: expenditures, $589,793 61, including $12,749 for agriculture, $60,607 for executive, legislative, and judicial departments, $22,000 for immigration, $25,000 for lunatic asylum, $7,208 for public health, $10,587 for public printing, $201,264 for roads, $8,844 for university, $20,000 for bridges, and $19,000 for steam navigation; balance in treasury Oct. 31, 1874, $153,071 36. The penitentiary at St. John on Dec. 31, 1873, contained 30 convicts.
The provincial lunatic asylum at St. John was opened in 1848; the number of inmates on Oct. 31, 1873, was 243 (128 males and 115 females). The capacity of the asylum is not equal to the demand for admission. According to the census of 1871, there were 9 hospitals, with 84 inmates; 2 orphan asylums, with 77 inmates; 9 other asylums (exclusive of the lunatic asylum), with 305 inmates; and 14 jails, with 149 inmates. - A system of free public schools was established by an act of 1871. These schools are under the general supervision of a chief superintendent of education for the province, with a county inspector for each county and boards of trustees for the several districts, and are supported by a provincial grant and a county tax equal to 30 cents per head, supplemented by a local tax, which includes a poll tax of $1 per head. The ex-penditures from the provincial treasury for school purposes during the year ending April 30, 1874, were $122,067 69. The number of schools in operation during the summer term ending Oct. 31, 1874, was 1,049, with 1,077 teachers and 45,539 pupils; number in attendance some portion of the year ending on that date, 60,467; number of school districts, 1,392; number of school houses, 1,050. There is a provincial training and model school at Fredericton. The university of New Brunswick at Fredericton was established by provincial charter as the college of New Brunswick in 1800, incorporated by royal. barter under the name of King's college in 1828, and reorganized under its present title in 1860. It embraces a classical course of three years, and special courses in civil engineering and surveying, agriculture, and commerce and navigation.
There is an annual scholarship of 860 for one student from each county, who also receives tuition free, and there are 56 free scholarships, distributed among the counties and cities, exempting from the payment of tuition fees alone. In 1872-'3 the number of professors was 7; students, 51. There is a col-legiate school connected with the university. Mount Allison Wesleyan college at Sackville, under the control of the Methodists, was organized in 1862, and is open to both sexes. It has classical, scientific, and special courses, and provision is made for theological instruction. A male academy and commercial college, in operation more than 30 years, and a female academy, organized in 1854, are connected with it. In 1873-'4 these institutions had 15 professors and instructors (5 in the college), 213 students (34 in the college), and a library of 4,000 volumes. St. Joseph's college (Roman Catholic) at Memramcook has a commercial course of four years and a classical course of five years, both taught through the medium of the French and English languages.
In 1874-5 it had 18 professors and instructors, 140 students, and a library of 1,000 volumes. - The number of newspapers and periodicals published in the province in 1874 was 33, viz.: 4 daily, 3 tri-weekly, 21 weekly (1 French), 4 monthly, and 1 quarterly. The number of the inhabitants in 1871 belonging to the various religious denominations and the number of churches and buildings attached thereto are shown in the following table:
Number of adherents.
Of the Baptists 27,866 were Freewill Baptists, and of the Methodists 26,212 were Wes-leyans. The principal denominations not named in the table were Adventists (711), Christian Conference (1,418), Congregationalists (1,193), and Universalists (590). - New Brunswick and Nova Scotia originally formed one French colony, called Acadia or New France. The first settlement within the present limits of New Brunswick was made by the French on the bay of Chaleurs in 1639. Other settlements were made in 1672 on the Miramichi river and elsewhere on the E. coast. In 1713 Acadia was ceded to the English by the treaty of Utrecht. The first British settler established himself on the Miramichi in 1764, and in 1784 New Brunswick was separated from Nova Scotia, and erected into a distinct colony. The first legislative assembly met at St. John in January, 1786. At the close of the American revolution about 5,000 loyalists from the United States settled here, and their descendants now form a considerable portion of the population. In October, 1825, the standing timber in the region around Miramichi bay took fire, enveloping an area of 6,000 sq. m. in flames. Two towns and about 500 persons were destroyed. In 1848 responsible government was introduced.
In 1867 New Brunswick became one of the original provinces of the Dominion of Canada.
New Brunswick, a city and the capital of Middlesex co., New Jersey, situated at the head of navigation on the S. W. bank of the Raritan river, about 15 m. above its mouth, at the terminus of the Delaware and Raritan canal, and on the New Jersey division of the Pennsylvania railroad, 28 m. S. W. of New York; pop. in 1860, 11,256; in 1870, 15,058. The oldest parts of the town are built on low land, but a large and by far the pleasantest portion is upon the high and sloping ground which, in the form of a crescent, half encircles the original location. This portion is well laid out with wide streets, and contains many handsome residences. The court house is near the centre of the city. The opera house and masonic hall are fine buildings. New Brunswick is largely engaged in manufactures, containing extensive India-rubber factories, and manufactories of harness, hosiery, iron, machinery, leather, paper hangings, etc. It has two banks, a high school and other public schools, several private schools, two daily and two weekly newspapers, two monthly periodicals, and 17 churches. The city is the seat of Rutgers college (Reformed), founded in 1770, occupying an elevated and beautiful situation in the N. portion.
A grammar school and the state college of agriculture and the mechanic arts (as the scientific department) are connected with it. (See Rutgers College.) The theological seminary of the Reformed (Dutch) church, established here in 1810, occupies a commanding position N. of the college. It has three tine buildings, Hertzog hall, Suydam hall, and the library. In 1874-'5 it had 4 professors, 39 students, and a library of 20,000 volumes. - New Brunswick was settled about the close of the 17th century by emigrants from Long Island, and was incorporated as a town in 1736. During the revolution it was at different times the headquarters of each of the opposing armies, and remains of their works are still to be seen in the vicinity. The city was incorporated in 1784.