New London, a S. E. county of Connecticut, on Long Island sound, bordering on Rhode Island, bounded E. partly by the Pawcatuck and W. by the Connecticut river, and drained by the Thames river; area, about 650 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 6G,570. The surface is hilly, and in the southwest mountainous; the soil is best adapted to grazing. Fishing is extensively carried on. It is traversed by several railroads. The chief productions in 1870 were (16,846 bushels of rye, 247,362 of Indian corn, 174,300 of oats, 17,546 of buckwheat, 331,492 of potatoes, 64,441 tons of hay, 10,000 lbs. of tobacco, 64,738 of wool, 803,406 of butter, and 95,613 of cheese. There were 3,916 horses, 13,116 milch cows, 5,711 working oxen, 10,775 other cattle, 20,565 sheep, and 7,560 swine. There were 703 manufacturing establishments, with a capital of $11,279,402, and annual pro-lucts amounting to $19,797,065, producing arriages and wagons, clothing, cotton goods, cotton thread, firearms, India-rubber goods, ron castings, machinery, paper, woollens, flour, and a variety of other articles.
Capitals, New London and Norwich.
New London, a city, port of entry, and one of the capitals of New London co., Connecticut, on the W. bank of the Thames river, 3 m. above its entrance into Long Island sound, and 40 m. S. E. of Hartford, in lat. 41° 18' 57" N., Ion. 72° 5' 4" W.; pop. in 1850, 8,991; in I860, 10,115; in 1870, 9,576. It is built on a declivity sloping S. and E., and the ground in the rear of the city rises to a considerable height. The streets were not originally laid out with much regularity, but have been greatly improved, and the new quarters are well graded. The private residences, owing partly to the influx of summer visitors who are attracted by the beautiful scenery of the neighborhood, are in many cases elegant and picturesque. The Pequot house, near the entrance of the harbor, has also made this city a fashionable summer resort. The Crocker house, recently built in the heart of the city, is one of the largest and best hotels in the state. Among the public buildings are a handsome granite custom house, a substantial and elegant brown-stone city building in which also the post office is situated, the court house, and the school houses and churches.
The town has ample railroad communication by means of the New York, New Haven, and Hartford (Shore Line), the New London Northern, and the Stonington and Providence lines. There are two daily lines of steamers to New York. The largest wharf in New England is in course of construction at this port; it is 1,125 ft. long, 220 ft. wide at the river end, and 150 ft. at the shore end, at which vessels drawing 18 ft. may lie at low tide. The harbor is the best on Long Island sound, and one of the best in the United States. It is 3 m. long and 5 fathoms deep, sheltered by hills, seldom obstructed by ice, and defended by Fort Trumbull at the entrance. This fortress, which has been almost entirely rebuilt since 1840, is one of the best in the country, and mounts 80 pieces of heavy ordnance. It has accommodations for a garrison of 800 men. At the town of Groton, on the opposite side of the river, is Fort Griswold, the scene of the massacre by the British in 1781. (See Groton.) On the E. bank of the Thames a United States navy yard is in course of construction.
The inhabitants of New London have long been actively engaged in the whale fishery, in which the city ranks second only to New Bedford. Pvecently the seal fishery has been pursued by vessels from this port at Alaska and the South Shetland islands. The cod and mackerel fisheries for the New York and other markets are also important. There is some foreign and considerable coasting trade. The value of exports to foreign countries for the year ending June 30, 1874, was $90,585; of imports from foreign ports, $237,714. The number of entrances in the foreign trade was 30, aggregate tonnage 5,084; clearances 18, tonnage 3,026. The number of vessels engaged in the whale fishery was 17, of 2,735 tons; in the cod and mackerel fisheries 98, of 2,107 tons. The number of vessels belonging to the port was 191, with an aggregate tonnage of 20,624, viz.: 166 sailing vessels, tonnage 9,524; 24 steamers, 10,935; and 1 barge, 165. The town contains several iron founderies, machine shops, planing mills, a woollen and silk factory, etc.
New London was settled in 1644 by John Win-throp, son of the governor of Massachusetts. On Sept. 6, 1781, it was captured by a British force under Benedict Arnold, who set lire to the stores and shipping, and reduced the most valuable part of the town to ashes. They then attacked Fort Griswold at Groton, and massacred the garrison after it had surrendered. Fort Trumbull, not being tenable, as it was much exposed on the land side, had been evacuated.