Newburgh, a city and one of the county seats of Orange co., New York, on the W. bank of the Hudson river, 61 m. by the river N. of New York, and 84 m. S. of Albany; pop. in 1870, 17,014, of whom 4,346 were foreigners. It is the terminus of the Newburgh branch of the Erie railway. Ferries connect it with Fishkill Landing and Dutchess Junction, stations on the Hudson River railroad, on the opposite bank of the river, the last named station being the river terminus of the New York, Boston, and Montreal railway. It is situated on a steep slope rising from the river to a height of 150 ft. Water is supplied from Little pond, 3 m. distant, the works for which cost $96,000. "Washington's Headquarters," an old stone mansion overlooking the Hudson, is owned and kept in order by the state. Besides its association with the revolutionary war and its great chief, the building contains numerous interesting relics of that period. Newburgh owns considerable shipping, and has an important trade, the receipts of lumber and produce by rail being extensive. Steamers run regularly to New York, Albany, and intermediate points.
Its manufactures are extensive, embracing engines, boilers, and other machinery, iron castings, carpets, cotton goods, beer, horse blankets, brass, cement pipe, paper, pianos and organs, etc. There are three national banks, with a joint capital of $1,550,000, and a savings bank. The city contains ten private schools, good public schools, embracing an academy and five grammar schools, a free public library under the charge of the board of education, and two daily and three weekly newspapers. The Newburgh theological seminary (United Presbyterian) was organized in 1804, and chartered in 1835. In 1873-'4 it had 3 instructors, 12 students, and a library of 3,450 volumes. There are 22 churches, viz.: 3 Baptist, 4 Episcopal, 5 Methodist, 6 Presbyterian, 2 Reformed, 1 Roman Catholic, and 1 Unitarian. The city was incorporated in 1865.