Newfoundland, a British North American colony, comprising the island of the same name, and the coast of Labrador from Blanc Sablon bay (lat. 51° 25' N., lon. 57° 9' W.), at the W. entrance of the strait of Belle Isle, to Cape Chudleigh (lat. 60° 37' N., lon. 65° W.), at the E. entrance of Hudson strait, a distance of about 750 m. (See Labrador.) The island lies at the mouth of the gulf of St. Lawrence, between lat. 46° 37' and 51° 40' X., and lon. 52° 40' and 590 31' W., and is separated from Labrador on the northwest by the strait of Belle Isle, 12 m. wide. Cape Ray, its S. W. point, is 65 m. from Cape North, the N. E. point of Cape Breton. Its length N. and S. near the 56th meridian is 325 m., and near the 54th meridian 180 m.; its width varies from about 45m. N. of the 50th parallel to 310 m. between Cape Ray and St. John's; area, 40,200 sq. m. The portion extending X. from Cape St. John nn the N. E. coast around the X. extremity of the island, and thence S. to Cape Kay, a distance of about 450 m., on which the French have the right to fish, is known as the "French shore;" the remainder, from Cape Ray E. and N. to Cape St. John, about 010 m., is divided into 10 districts, embracing 15 electoral divisions.similar to counties), viz.: Bonavista, Burgeo and La Poile, Burin, Conception Bay with live divisions (Bay de Verds, Carbonear, Harbor Grace, Portdegrave, and Southern), Fer-ryland, Fortune Bay, Placentia and St. Mary's, St. John's with two divisions (East and West), Trmity. and Twillingate and Fogo. The chief towns are St. John's (pop. in 1869, 22,553), the capital and commercial centre, on the S. E. coast, and Harbor Grace (pop. (6,770) and Carbonear (pop. 5,000), on Conception bay.

Other important settlements are Twillingate (pop 2,790. on Notre Dame bay; Bonavista (pop. 2,600), between Bonavista and Trinity bays; Brigus (2,000), on Conception bay; Greens-pond, on Bonavista bay; Catalina and Trinity, on Trmity bay; Bay Roberts, on Conception bay; Torbay, on the S. E. coast, and Burin, on Placentia bay. The population nowhere extends far inland, and the greater portion of the inhabitants are settled on the peninsula of Avalon and in the adjacent districts at the S. E. extremity of the island. The permanent population in 1763 was about 7,500; in 1804, 20,000; since which it has increased rapidly. The population according to subsequent censuses has been as follows: 1836, 75,-096; 1845, 96,606; 1857, 124,288; 1869, 146,-536, of whom 75,547 were males and 70,989 females; 1874, 161,455, of whom 8,651 were settled on the French shore, and 2,416 in Labrador. The figures for 1836 and 1845 do not include Labrador and the French shore. The inhabitants are chiefly emigrants or the descendants of emigrants from England and Ireland. The aborigines of Newfoundland, who called themselves Beoths, and painted themselves with red ochre, whence they were called Red Indians, are supposed to have become extinct.

There are a few Micmac Indians from New Brunswick in the island. - The interior has never been thoroughly explored. In 1822 W. E. Cormack, a Scotchman, with a single attendant, crossed the island from Trinity bay to St. George's bay, and published a short account of his journey. In 1839 and 1840 a geological reconnoissance of the coast was made by Prof. J. B. Jukes, who in 1843 published a "General Report of the Geological Survey of Newfoundland." For some years past geological and topographical surveys by Alexander Murray have been in progress, and several annual reports have been made to the colonial government. The island is rugged and for the most part barren. The interior is an undulating plateau, interspersed at intervals of a few miles with low hills or ridges, marshes, and lakes. The principal ranges of hills are the Long Range mountains, which run in a 1ST. E. direction from Cape Ray to the Hum-ber river, by which they are cut, and thence N. to Bonne bay, and onward through the centre of the N. peninsula to Castor river; the Cape Anguille mountains, a triangular range near that cape, rising to a height of 1,200 ft. or upward; the Blow-me-down (properly Blomi-don) hills, between St. George's bay and the Humber arm, attaining near the latter an elevation of 2,085 ft.; a range crossing the river Exploits, about 30 m. from its mouth, which at the north rises to a summit called Hodge's hill, and 8. of the river is known as the Shutebrook hills; a range running N. E. and S. W., and dividing the waters of Gander bay from those of the bay of Exploits, which at the north, where it attains a height of nearly 1,000 ft., is called the Blue hills, and at the south Heart ridge; a range bordering the W. shore of Placentia bay, and extending to Bonavista bay, which is more than 1,000 ft. high; and two ranges in the peninsula of Avalon. The easternmost of these, which probably does not rise above 700 ft., is flanked by two conical hills, called "Butterpots," about 20 m. apart, which are about 1,000 ft. in height; the western range attains in one of its peaks an elevation of about 1,400 ft.

E. and N. E. of the valley of Bay East river are three hills, called "Tolts," which are probably more than 2,000 ft. high, the southern of which is named Mount Sylvester. The coast is for the most part precipitous and lofty, and is broken into numerous headlands and peninsulas by deep bays, which in turn are indented by innumerable smaller inlets. The sinuosities measure several thousand miles. The W. coast is the most regular. The principal bays are Pistolet, at the N. extremity; Hare, Canada, White, Notre Dame, and the bay of Exploits, on the N. E. coast; Bonavista, Trinity, and Conception, on the E.; Trepassey, St. Mary's, Placentia, Fortune, Hermitage, and D'Espoir (called by many of the inhabitants Despair bay), on the S.; and St. George's bay, bay of Islands, Bonne bay, and St. John's bay, on the W. coast. Between White bay on the east and the gulf of St. Lawrence and strait of Belle Isle on the west the N. projection of the island forms an extensive peninsula. The peninsula of Avalon forms the S. E. extremity, and is connected with the mainland by an isthmus 3 m. wide, which separates Trinity bay N. E. from Placentia bay S. W. Between Placentia and Fortune bays is the peninsula of Burin. The most important capes are Cape Bauld, at the N. E. extremity of the island; Partridge point, at the entrance of White bay; Cape St. John, at the N. entrance of Notre Dame bay; Cape Freels at the N., and Cape Bonavista at the S. entrance of Bonavista bay; Cape St. Francis, at the S. entrance of Conception bay; Cape Race, at the S. E. extremity of the island; Cape Ray, at the S. W. point; Cape Anguille at the S. and Cape St. George at the N. entrance of St. George's bay; Point Riche, on the N. portion of the W. coast; and Cape Norman, at the N. W. extremity.

At the most important and frequented points along the coast lighthouses have been erected. There are numerous good harbors, but the entrance to many of them is obstructed by rocky ledges. Small islands abound in the bays and along the coast. The most important are Belle Isle, at the entrance to the strait of that name; Quirpon island, at the N. E. extremity; Groais, South Belle Isle, and St. Barbe or Horse island, off the N. E. coast; Twillingate and New World islands, in the bay of Exploits; Fogo island, E. of these; Random, in Trinity bay; Mara-sheen, in Placentia bay; and Brunet, in Fortune bay. The Miquelon islands and St. Pierre, off the extremity of the peninsula of Burin, which belong geographically to Newfoundland, are subject to France. The interior of the island is so thickly strewn with lakes and ponds that it is estimated that a third of the surface is covered with water. The most extensive lakes are Grand pond, about 15 m. N. E. of the head of St. George's bay, 50 m. long by 5 m. wide; Red Indian pond, 33 by 3 m.; Gander pond, W. of Bonavista bay, 30 by 2 m.; Terra Nova lake, 4 m. long by 2½ m. wide, discharging through the river of the same name into Bonavista bay; and George the Fourth's, Jameson, and Bathurst lakes, in the S. part of the island, whose position and size have not been accurately ascertained.

The principal rivers are the river of Exploits, which flows from Red Indian pond, and after a N. E. course of 70 m. falls into the bay of Exploits; Terra Nova, about 100 m. long; Bay East, which flows into D'Espoir bay; Great and Little Codroy rivers, which empty into the gulf of St. Lawrence between Capes Ray and Anguille; and Humber, which discharges the waters of Grand pond, and after expanding into Deer lake falls into the Humber arm, an inlet of the bay of Islands. The Exploits, Humber, Terra Nova, and some other streams are navigable by canoes or flats. - All the great ancient rock systems between the lower Laurentian and the coal measures are more or less represented in different parts of Newfoundland. The series in descending order is as follows: carboniferous, Devonian, upper Silurian, lower Silurian, primordial Silurian, Huronian or Cambrian, upper Laurentian, and lower Laurentian. The lowest of these systems appears to constitute the principal mountain ranges, coming to the surface through the more recent deposits on the axes of anticlinal lines, or brought out by great dislocations, most of which are nearly parallel with each other in a general bearing of N. N. E. and S. S. W. This regularity of bearing explains the uniform N. E. and S. W. direction of the bays and of the principal lakes and streams.

The Laurentian gneiss forms the Long Range, and is exhibited in the ranges in the S. W. portion of the island. A granitic and gneissoid belt stretches from the head of Placentia bay to Bonavista bay, and thence along the W. and N. shore of the latter to Cape Freels. The gneiss is also developed in the island of Fogo, and forms the nucleus of the S. E. extremity of the peninsula of Avalon. On the W. flank of the Long Range, on the upper part of Great Codroy river, large fragments of white crystalline limestone with graphite are found, and toward the northeast on the same range occur labradorite and other crystalline rocks, with masses of magnetic iron. In the peninsula of Avalon the crystalline rocks of the Laurentian period are succeeded by a set of slates, with conglomerate bands, diorites, quartzites, and alternating green and reddish, hard silicious and felsite slates, surmounted by a great mass of thick-bedded green and red sandstone, the latter passing into a moderately coarse conglomerate, with many pebbles of red jasper at the top. These occupy the greater portion of the peninsula. The calciferous formation yields fossils on Canada and Hare bays, and appears along the W. coast N. of St. George's bay.

Rocks of upper or middle Silurian age are indicated by the presence of the characteristic fossils on White and Exploits bays. The carboniferous series occupies a largo area in the vicinity of Grand pond and on St. George's bay. Building stones, including granite, sandstone, and limestone, are abundant in the island. Marble of various kinds occurs on the bay of Islands, and the fossiliferous limestone of Topsail head on Conception bay takes a high polish, and furnishes a handsome variegated marble. Gypsum abounds in the vicinity of the Codroy rivers and elsewhere in the S. W. part of the island, and bituminous coal is found in the carboniferous formation, where also brine springs frequently occur. Iron ore has been found. A lead mine was for some time worked at La Manche, at the head of Placentia bay, but with little success, though the lode is very promising. Copper mines have been opened at several points, but, with the exception of that at Tilt Cove on Notre Dame bay, they have nearly all been discontinued. The Tilt Cove mine has been in successful operation since 1865, and in the five years from 1869 to 1873 inclusive 22, 404 tons of ore were exported.

A vein of nickel has been discovered here, and a small quantity of ore has been extracted. - The climate, tempered on the one hand by the Gulf stream and on the other by the arctic current, is neither so cold in winter nor so hot in summer as on the adjacent portions of the continent. The weather is extremely variable, being often very mild in midwinter, and on the other hand raw and cold in midsummer. Spring is the most disagreeable and trying season, owing probably to the largo Hoes of ice brought down from the north, and to the breaking up of the ice in the gulf of St. Lawrence, which affects the climate of the S. and W. portion of the island. The \V. coast has a milder climate than the F. Dense fogs are prevalent, principally in summer, along the S. and S. W. shores of the island and the coast of the peninsula of Avalon, but they do not extend far inland. The N. portion of the island is said to be quite free from them. The fogs and violent gales, which are common, render the coast of Newfoundland dangerous to navigation. The prevailing winds vary from S. W. to W., N. \V., and N., except in February and March, and sometimes April, when N. F. winds prevail. The climate, except for those suffering from pulmonary diseases, is very healthy.

The mean temperature at St. John's for the eight years from 1857 to 1864 inclusive was 414 the highest annual, mean being 44 in 414;, and the lowest;57 in 1864: average annual fall of rain and melted snow, 59.94 inches, the greatest fall being 82.4 ["flies in 1860 and the least 42 in 1857. The highest temperature observed was 89° in July 1857, and the lowest - 14 in February, 1863. - the interior, so far as known, the summits and sometimes the sides of the hills and ridges are thinly covered with a stunted vegetation consisting of berry plants and dwarf bushes of various species, and are called "the barrens." The sides of those hills that afford natural drainage and the borders of the lakes and rivers are clothed with forests, consisting chiefly of fir-, birch, pine, juniper, larch, wych hazel or yellow birch, mountain ash, alder, aspen, and spruce. These trees are generally small and stunted, though the fir and birch sometimes attain considerable size. The largest and best timber is in the valleys of the Humber, the Exploits, the Gander, and the Gambo (the last two S. of the Exploits), where the pine and spruce are of the finest description. All the best timber and the best land are back from the. coast.

The ground here is often covered with a creeping bush, a species of yew, called in Canada the ground hemlock. The frequent peat marshes are covered with grasses, rushes, etc., while the other valleys and level tracks produce abundant pasturage. Much of the country is covered with lichens and reindfcer moss. - Large portions of the island are believed to be adapted to grazing, but few domestic animals are kept. Sheep raising has been retarded by the great number of dogs kept by the inhabitants. Agriculture has been but little attempted, and chiefly in the southeast, where the soil and climate are least favorable. There is much arable land about the heads of the bays, on Humber river, the river of Exploits, and other streams. The region about the bay of Islands and along the W. const S. of if has been found to contain extensive fertile tracts, and the climate hero is better adapted to agriculture than on the S. and F. coasts. The interior is believed to contain much arable land, and the marshes are thought, to be in large measure reelaimable. The principal crops that may bo successfully cultivated are barley, oats, potatoes, turnips, cabbages, peas, beans, carrots, etc. Wheat will ripen in some places; its cultivation has been attempted only on the smallest possible scale.

Hops thrive, and strawberries, currants, gooseberries, cherries, etc, grow in the gardens, while numerous species of berries are found wild. The number of acres under cultivation in 1869 was 41,715. During the last two or three years, with successful fishing seasons, considerable progress has been made in agricul-turo. - The principal wild animals are the caribou, bear, wolf, hare, beaver, marten, wild cat, and fox. The Newfoundland dog, so famous for its size, sagacity, and fidelity, is now rarely found of pure blood, the animals commonly known by the name being crosses of innumerable varieties. Land and aquatic birds abound. The adjacent waters swarm with cod, eaplin, herring, seals, etc, and salmon were formerly abundant in the streams. The fisheries are the chief wealth of the colony, employing directly or indirectly nine tenths of the inhabitants. The number of fishermen is about 32,000. The principal fisheries, in the order of importance, are the cod, seal, herring, and salmon. The cod fishery is pursued around the shores of the island and on the coast of Labrador, from Juno to October; the average annual catch is about 1,500,000 quintals.

The seal fishery begins about the first, of March and terminates in May.

In 1878, 107 vessels, with an aggregate tonnage of 15,080 and 8,062 men, of which 20, of 5,766 tons and 3,595 men, were steamers, were engaged in it. and about 525,000 seals were taken. The chief seats of the herring fishery are Labrador, Bonne hay, hay of Islands, St. bay, and Fortune bay. In the hay of Islands it is pursued during the winter. The average catch is about 175,000 barrels. The salrnon fishery is prosecuted to some extent in Labrador, but chiefly in the bays on the E. coast of the island; the average quantity taken annually is about 6,.500 tierces. (Bee Fisheries, and Seal Fishery.) Newfoundland has scarcely any manufactures, excepting a few establishments at St. John's. Its commerce is important. The value of imports and exports at different periods has been as follow:


















1 310.892










The principal countries with which the commerce is carried on are the United Kingdom (imports from in 1873, £505,708; exports to, £450,424), Canada (imports, £377,732; exports, £74,174;, British West Indies (imports. £46,388; exports. £60,063), Spain (exports, £217,454;, Portugal (exports, £180,624), Italy (exports, £32,608), United States (imports, 5,253; exports, £44,479), French West Indies (imports, £57,196; exports, £29,544), and Brazil (exports. £244,413). The principal articles of import in 1873 were flour, meal, and hard bread (£380,568), manufactured goods (£259,061), meats (£120,218;, molasses (£80,-552), leather and leather ware (£74,303), earthen, glass, and hardware (£59,153), butter and cheese (£58,498), besides cordage and cables, coal, fishing tackle, salt, sugar, tea and coffee, tobacco and cigars, wood and wooden ware, wines, spirits, etc. The preceding statements relate only to the island of Newfoundland, exclusive of the French shore. The exports in 1873 from the entire colony, including Labrador and the French shore, were as follows:




Dried codfish.............

1,316.845 qtls



7,304 tierces.



138,037 bbls.


Other fish....


Cod oil. crude

1,049.580 gale.


" " refined...........

97,272 "


Seal oil...

1,571,220 "


Other fish oil........

57,204 '.


Seal skins.......

452, 587


Copper ore........

5,553 tons.


Nickel. ore

120 "


Other articles.......




The number of vessels entered at the various porta in 1873 was 1,146, with an aggregate tonnage of 218,122; cleared. 937, tonnage 193,902; belonging in the colony. 1,301, tonnage 68,185. - There are no railroads in Newfoundland, and the means of communication by land are imperfect. Steamers ply between the principal settlements and St. John's. Transatlantic steamers touch at St. John's semi-monthly for nine months, and monthly during the three winter month-. The most important places are connected with St. John's by telegraph, and the island, as the nearest point of North America to Europe, occupies a prominent position as the centre of telegraphic communication between the two continenl. The New York, Newfoundland, and London telegraph company, incorporated in 1854, has the monopoly of landing cables, and has associated with itself in the privilege the Atlantic and French cable companies. The colony has since April 15, 1874, the right under the charter of purchasing the interests of the company, and the policy of exercising the right has been much discussed.

There are two banks at St. John*.-, with a capital of £50,000 each; aggregate assets, May 31, 1873, £739,111; average circulation of notes, £189,098; of specie, £76,614. There is also a savings bank at St. John's, with a branch at Harbor Grace, having together at the above date 2.102 depositors, and deposits to the amount of £180.281. - The executive power is vested in a governor, appointed by the crown during pleasure, and an executive council of not. more than seven members, appointed by the governor, and responsible to the assembly. The legislative power is vested in a legislative council of not more than 15 members (present number 13), appointed by the crown or governor during pleasure, and a house of assembly of 31 members, elected by the people for four years, unless sooner dissolved by the governor. The right of suffrage is conferred upon all male subjects of Great Britain, 21 years old and upward, who have occupied a dwelling house as owners or tenants for two years immediately preceding the day of election. Voting is vita voce.

The number of registered electors at the election of 1873 was 20,759. The legislature meets annually at the end of January or the beginning of February. The supreme court consists of a chief justice and two assistant judges, each of whom holds a circuit court in one of the three circuits, northern, central, and southern. 'J he vice-admiralty court is, held by the chief justice. A court of civil and criminal jurisdiction, with summary process, i- held in summer on the Labrador coast by a single judge, who passes from point to point in a revenue cruiser. There are also minor courts and justices of the peace. Judges and justices of the peace are appointed by the governor during pleasure. The revenue of the colony is derived exclusively from a tariff on imports. There is no municipal or other body authorized to levy taxes or lav assessments. The only direct taxation is a land tax or ground rent for sewerage and a house or tenant tax for the supply of water in St. John's, levied under acts of the legislature.

The revenue in 1874 amounted to £185,334, the expenditures to £198,290, the difference being partly made up by the excess of revenue in previous years, there being a balance of £3,300 in favor of the colony at the close of 1873. The public debt on Dec. 31, 1874I. was £239,396. The penitentiary is at St. John's, where there is also a lunatic asylum. For school purposes the island is divided into districts, and in each a hoard of education consisting of Catholics for the Catholic schools, and another consisting of Protestants for the Protestant schools, are appointed by the governor in council. These boards have the general management of the schools in their respective districts, subject to the approval of the governor in council. The governor with the advice of the council also appoints a Catholic and a Protestant inspector, to inspect the schools and report upon their condition. The sum of £750 (£4:00 for Protestants and £350 for Catholics) is appropriated annually for the training of teachers. Two scholars from each electoral division are entitled to £25 each for their board, lodging, and tuition in one of the academies or higher schools of the island.

The money appropriated by the legislature for educational purposes has hitherto been divided between the Protestants and Catholics in proportion to their numbers; the act of April 29, 1874, provides for a further division among the various Protestant sects. This act does not go into effect until July 1, 1875, after a census has been taken, upon which and subsequent decennial censuses the denominational appropriations are to be based. It increases the number of inspectors to three. In the schools under government control a small tuition fee is required of pupils able to pay. Besides those established by the governmental boards, the schools of the colonial church and school society (an English association, under the auspices of the established church), and several established and controlled by the different religious denominations, receive aid from the government. The amount expended for educational purposes in 1872 was £14,852; in 1873, £15,310. The number of schools in operation in 1874 was 293, with a total attendance of 13,597 pupils, of which 157 with 7,805 pupils were Protestant, and 136 with 5,792 pupils Catholie. Besides these there are grammar schools at Harbor Grace and Carbonear, an Kpiseopal, a Wesleyan Methodist, and a general Protestant academy at St. John's, and at the same plce an Episcopal theological institute and St.. Bonaventure college (Catholic). There are 13 newspapers published in the island, viz.. 1 tri-weekly 5 semi-weekly, 5 weekly, and 2 bh.-weekly.,11 issued St. John's, except one weekly at Harbor Grace. Newfoundland contains two Roman Catholic bishoprics, St. John's and Harbor Grace, two Wesleyan Methodist superintendencies, and an Episcopal bishopric, with a bishop and a coadjutor.

In 1874 there were 64,480 Roman Catholics, 59,005 Episcopalians, 35,551 Wesleyan Methodists, and 1,813 of other sects. The number of places of worship in 1809 was 188, viz.: Episcopal, 81; Catholic, 59; Wesleyan Methodist, 42; other, 0. - Newfoundland was discovered by John or Sebastian Cabot in 1497 or 1498. Within a few years the island was frequented by the Portuguese, Spanish, and French for its fisheries, and subsequently by the English. On Aug. 5, 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, in command of four armed vessels, entered the harbor of St. John's and took formal possession of the island in the name of Queen Elizabeth. Among the earliest attempts at settlement was that of Mr. Guy, a Bristol merchant, in 1010, who founded a colony at Mosquito cove in Conception bay, which remained but a short time. In 1014 Capt. Richard Whitburn, of Exmouth in Devon, was sent by the admiralty to Newfoundland to establish order among the fishermen and correct the great abuses that prevailed. He made an attempt to impanel juries in the most frequented harbors, and was the first to introduce the forms of law in Newfoundland. A year or two after he was appointed governor of a colony of Welshmen, established by Dr. William Vaughan in the southern part of the island, at a place now known as Little Britain. About this time fixed habitations were erected by the fishermen at various points along the coast.

What may be considered the first permanent colony was established by Sir George Calvert, afterward Lord Baltimore, on the S. E. peninsula, to which he gave the name of Aval on, probably in 1023, though some authorities say in 1021. About 10 years after this some colonists from Ireland came over under Lord Falkland, and a party of English under Sir David Kirk in 1054, about which time 15 settlements, comprising 300 families, had been made. About 1020 the French had established a station at Placentia. In 1033 Charles I. established a code of regulations, but the island still continued without a regular government. In the reign of William III. the three fishing captains first arriving in any harbor each summer were designated admiral, vice admiral, and rear admiral respectively of that harbor, and became magistrates, empowered to decide all fishery rights and civil causes. Until the peace of Utrecht in 1713 the ports were frequently the scenes of warfare between the English and French, one and the other power alternately gaining possession of them. The English government was also opposed to the settlement of their own people, and broke up their establishments on the ground of their being likely to monopolize the fishery, and prevent it from becoming a nursery for British seamen.

The treaty of Utrecht gave Great Britain the sole sovereignty of the island, but permitted the French to catch and dry fish on the shores from Cape Bonavista N. around the N. point of the island, and thence S. to Point Riche. The present limits of the French shore were defined by the treaty of 1783. In 1728 a governor was first appointed, but he was for a time almost powerless, being opposed by the fishing admirals. For many years the only law was the proclamations of the governors. In 1750 a court of oyer and terminer was established. For some years prior to 1767 Capt. Cook, the famous navigator, was engaged in surveying the coast. His charts are still in use, being among the best and in some cases the only trustworthy ones. Newfoundland suffered severely from the non-intercourse act passed by the first provincial congress and carried out in 1775. Dependent upon New England for supplies to the annual value of nearly £350,000, when these were suddenly cut off and the coast and harbors were ravaged by American privateers, the inhabitants were reduced to the greatest distress before they could be relieved by the protective measures of the mother country. In 1792 the supreme court was established.

In 1805 the first post office was established at St. John's, and in 1806 the first newspaper was published there. In 1832 a representative assembly was granted to the island. The present form of government was organized in 1855. In 1856 Newfoundland was connected by a telegraphic cable with the American continent, and in 1866 the first Atlantic cable furnishing permanent communication with Europe was landed. The question of joining the Dominion of Canada as a province has several times come before the people at elections for members of assembly, but the proposition has been voted down. Labrador, with Anticosti and the Magdalen islands, was annexed to Newfoundland in 1763, but in 1774 they were placed under the government of Lower Canada. In 1809 Labrador and Anticosti were reannexed to Newfoundland. In 1825 Anticosti, with the portion of Labrador W. of Blanc Sablon bay, was again transferred to Lower Canada. Difficulties have at various times occurred between the French and the; Colonists regarding their respective rights on the French shore, which have retarded the development of that portion of the island, the French claiming the exclusive right of fishery and that the English have no right to form permanent settlements there. - See "History of Newfoundland," by L. A. Anspach (London, 1819), and by the Rev. Charles Pedley (London, 1863).