A Central County Of West Virginia, intersected by the Gauley river, a branch of the Great Kanawha, and drained by Meadow river and Buffalo creek; area, 880 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 4,458, of whom 31 were colored. It has a mountainous surface and a soil not generally productive. The chief productions in 1870 were 10,242 bushels of wheat, 101,300 of Indian corn, 38,365 of oats, 3,029 tons of hay, 18,838 lbs. of wool, 164,990 of butter, and 12,589 gallons of sorghum molasses. There were 1,073 horses, 1,600 milch cows, 4,144 other cattle, 8,171 sheep, and 5,291 swine. Capital, Summerville.
A N. E. County Of Kentucky, intersected by Licking river and drained by its branches; area, about 300 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 9,129 of whom 1,244 were colored. It has a diversified surface, rugged in the north and undulating in the south, the latter portion being very fertile. The Blue Lick spring, celebrated for its mineral waters, is in this county on the banks of Licking river. The chief productions in 1870 were 39,397 bushels of wheat, 24,638 of rye, 665,795 of Indian corn, 68,304 of oats, 2,345 tons of hay, 83,994 lbs. of tobacco, 25,796 of wool, 163,-448 of butter, and 21,380 gallons of sorghum molasses. There were 4,314 horses, 1,729 mules and asses, 2,477 milch cows, 4,978 other cattle, 9,032 sheep, and 16,566 swine; 2 distilleries, 4 flour mills, and 6 saw mills. Capital, Carlisle.
Nicholas, the name of five popes and one antipope, of whom the following are the most important.
Nicholas I, the Great, and Saint, born in Rome about 800, died there, Nov. 13, 867. He belonged to the Conti family, and was elected pope April 24, 858. In 860, having received ambassadors from the Greek emperor Michael III., and letters from Photius, the usurper of the patriarchal see of Constantinople, urging him to acknowledge the latter as lawful patriarch, Nicholas sent two legates to Constantinople to inquire into the facts of the case, and report to himself, forbidding them to pronounce any decision. The legates were persuaded to approve of the deposition of the lawful patriarch, Ignatius; but the pope cancelled their action, and called upon all the eastern churches to sustain this sentence. This led to the final rupture between the Greek and Latin churches. (See Photius.) Lothaire, king of Lorraine, having put away his wife Theutberga, and obtained front two synods of bishops a sentence authorizing this divorce and his marriage with Waldrada, his concubine, Theutberga appealed to the pope. Nicholas summoned a court to meet at Metz (863), before which Lothaire and Theutberga were enjoined to appear. The court was only empowered to hear the case, and to report the facts to the pope. But Lothaire, who meanwhile was publicly married to Waldrada, obtained a decree sanctioning the nuptials.
Nicholas annulled the decree, but the partisans of Lothaire appealed to the emperor Louis, then present with his army in Italy. He espoused the cause of Lothaire, and marched upon Rome, but fell sick, and, considering this as a sign of the divine anger, employed the mediation of the empress to become reconciled with the pope. Lothaire offered to go to Rome to justify his conduct; but Nicholas refused to see him, and required that he should put away Waldrada and take back Theutberga. This Lothaire did in 865, when he and his wife were solemnly crowned by the papal legate. Lothaire, however, soon renewed his connection with Waldrada, and accused the queen of adultery. The pope again interfered, in January, 867, and both king and queen were about to go to Rome when he died. Two councils presided over by Hincmar, archbishop of Rheims, in 863, had deposed Rothrad, bishop of Sois-sons, and imprisoned him for appealing from this sentence to the Roman see. After a long controversy with Hincmar and King Charles the Bald, Rothrad was allowed to go to Rome, and was reinstated in his office without opposition.
In 865 Nicholas received an embassy from the recently converted Bogoris, prince of the Bulgarians; and in 866 he sent the ambassadors back with two legates, and a letter containing 106 answers to as many questions submitted to him by Bogoris. Nicholas is praised by historians for his unblemished life, as well as for his active charity.
Nicholas V. (Tommaso Pa-Eentucelli Called Also Tommaso Da Sarzana), born at Sarzana, near Genoa, in 1398, died in Rome, March 24,1455. He was ordained priest at 25, filled several diplomatic offices under successive popes, was created cardinal by Eu-genius IV., became archbishop of Bologna in 1445, was sent as legate to Frankfort in 1446, and was elected pope March 6, 1447. He began his pontificate by remodelling the Vatican library, and concluding with Germany a concordat which abolished some abuses relating to the collation of benefices; by soliciting the aid of all Christian princes and peoples in favor of Cyprus, threatened by the Turkish forces; and by urging anew the Greek emperor to seek in a religious and political union with western Christendom the safety of his empire. In 1449 he prevailed on the antipope Felix V. to terminate the western schism by. abdicating the papacy. In 1452 he crowned the emperor Frederick III. and his wife at Rome; and a year afterward, upon the fall of Constantinople, he published a bull calling on all Christians to unite against the Turks. He abandoned in favor of this crusade all the revenues of the church, the tenths due to his treasury and all the imposts of which he had the disposal.
His generosity and the assistance of Alfonso, king of Sicily, enabled him to place a large force in the held under Scan-derbeg, who gained several important victories. He also displayed great munificence in welcoming the Greek refugees, and providing honorable employment for their men of letters. He purchased the manuscripts of every description saved from the sack of Constantinople, encouraged the translation into Latin of all the great literary monuments of Greece, enlarged the great Roman schools, embellished Koine with sumptuous buildings, and may be said to have founded the Vatican library. When the plague which ravaged Italy in 1440 and 1450 forced the pope to tiy from Rome, his temporary abodes in Fabriano, Spoleto, Assisi, and Tolentino were tilled with men of letters, booksellers, and bookbinders. In December, 1452, he frustrated a conspiracy formed against his life. He succeeded in terminating the feuds which had so long disturbed Italy, and gave its people several years of peace. He was free from the charge of nepotism, and an enemy to all duplicity and hypocrisy.