Nimwegen, Or Nijmegen Nimeguen (anc. Novio-magus), a fortified frontier town of the Netherlands, in Gelderland, on the left bank of the Waal, 10 m. S. by W. of Arnhem and 13 m. N. W. of Cleves, Prussia; pop. in 1872, 22,785. It is built on several hills, on which in ancient times the Romans had formed a camp to guard their Batavian possessions against the Germans. The town is well built, though the streets are narrow. The most remarkable public building is the town hall, containing a few Roman antiquities, the swords of Egmont and Horn, statues of German emperors, and portraits of the ambassadors connected with the treaty of peace signed there in 1078, between Spain, trance, and Holland, followed in 1679 by that between the two former countries and Germany and Sweden. On the principal hill (Hoenderberg) are the ruins of the castle of Falkenhof, said to have been built by Charlemagne; and not far from it is the fine café and promenade of the Belvedere, a lofty structure, originally built under the direction of the duke of Alva. The harbor is protected by a wall from the floods and floating ice of the river.
There are numerous breweries and flour mills, and manufactories of hardware, stoves, fire engines, cabinet work, painted glass, hats, and gold and silver work; and there is a brisk trade in corn and wine. - Nimeguen was formerly a Hanse town. After joining in 1579 the Utrecht league of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, it was taken by the Spaniards in 1585, and recovered by Maurice of Orange in 1591. In 1672 it was taken by Turenne; but in 1702 it resisted another attack of the French.