An E. County Of Massachusetts, having Massachusetts bay on the N. E. and Rhode Island on the S. W.; area estimated at 450 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 89,444. It is watered by the Charles, Neponset, and other rivers. The surface is rough, and in some places hilly, and the soil is strong and rocky and highly cultivated. Granite of an excellent quality is quarried at Quincy. It is traversed by several railroads terminating in Boston. The chief productions in 1870 were 6,717 bushels of wheat, 46,136 of Indian corn, 7,734 of oats, 6,728 of barley, 132,734 of potatoes, 24,920 tons of hay, and 170,295 lbs. of butter. There were 2,070 horses, 5,289 milch cows, 2,303 other cattle, 508 sheep, and 3,233 swine. The number of manufacturing establishments was 658, with a capital of $9,548,750; annual products, $25,836,394, The principal manufactories were 14 of boot and shoe findings, 11 of packing boxes, 16 of carriages and wagons, 1 of chocolate, 1 of copper bolts and sheathing, 10 of cotton goods, 1 of fertilizers, 1 of flax and linen goods, 8 of furniture, 7 of hardware, 17 of hosiery, 4 of India-rubber and elastic-goods, 4 of forged and rolled iron, 6 of castings, 18 of leather, 7 of machinery, 9 of paper, 19 of saddlery and harness, 2 of sewing and twist silk, 14 of straw goods, 15 of tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware, 11 of woollen goods, 9 flour mills, and 9 saw mills.
A S. E. County Of Virginia, bordering on North Carolina, having the mouth of James river or Hampton roads on the N. and Chesapeake bay on the N. E. corner, and drained by Elizabeth and North rivers; area, about 500 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 46,702, of whom 22,320 were colored. It has a level surface, and comprises a large portion of the Dismal swamp. The Atlantic, Mississippi, and Ohio railroad terminates at Norfolk; and it is traversed by the Seaboard and Roanoke railroad and the Dismal Swamp canal. The chief productions in 1870 were 348,821 bushels of Indian corn, 13,614 of peas and beans, 69,212 of Irish and 43'913 of sweet potatoes. There were 1,028 horses, 1,144 milch cows, 1,678 other cattle, 619 sheep, and 7,643 swine; 4 manufactories of carriages and wagojis, 1 of railroad cars, 1 of iron castings, 4 of machinery, 8 of tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware, 3 flour mills, 4 saw mills, and 3 ship yards. Capital, Portsmouth.
Norfolk, a S. county of Ontario, Canada, on the N. shore of Lake Erie; area, 635 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 30,760, of whom 13,039 were of English, 5,384 of German, 5,280 of Irish. 3,779 of Scotch, 1,781 of Dutch, and 687 of French origin or descent. It is watered by several streams, and is traversed by the Can-ada Southern and Canada Air Line railroads. The surface is undulating and the soil fertile. Capital, Simcoe.
Norfolk, a maritime county of England, bordering on the North sea, the counties of Suffolk. Cambridge, and Lincoln, and the Wash; area. 2,116 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 438,511. The coast consists of cliffs, partly chalk, which the sea is gradually undermining, and several villages have been swept away. The surface is flat, except in the north. The soil is light, and there is little woodland, but agriculture is very advanced. The principal rivers are the Great and Little Ouse, Nen, and Yare. The climate on the E. coast is dry, and in winter and early spring cold penetrating winds prevail. The best crop is barley, which is made into malt and exported. Turnips are extensively raised. The stock of sheep is considerable, much poultry is raised for the London market, and game abounds. There are valuable fisheries of herrings and to some extent of mackerel. Woollen manufactures are largely carried on. The principal towns are Norwich, the capital, Lynn Regis, Thetford, and Yarmouth.
Norfolk, a city and port of entry of Norfolk co., Virginia, on the N. bank of Elizabeth river. 8 m. from Hampton roads, 32 m. from the Atlantic ocean, and at the terminus of the Atlantic, Mississippi, and Ohio railroad, 88 m. in a direct line and 160 by water S. E. of Richmond. pop. in 1850, 14,326; in 1860, 14,620; in 1870, 19,229, of whom 8,766 were colored. Its situation is low. The streets are generally wide, but irregularly laid out, and the houses well built of brick and stone. Among the principal buildings are the city hall, having a granite front and a cupola 110 ft. high, the Norfolk academy, mechanics' hall, and masonic temple. There are two cemeteries handsomely laid out and adorned with cypress trees. The city contains a court house, jail, and custom house. The custom house and the buildings of several of the banks are elegant structures. It has a fine harbor, easily accessible and safe, admitting the largest vessels. The entrance is defended by Forts Calhoun and Monroe. In the vicinity, at Gosport, is a United States navy yard with a marine hospital.
The yard contains a dry dock, constructed of granite, at a cost of $974,536. The trade of Norfolk is facilitated by three canals: the Norfolk and Princess Anne canal; the Dismal Swamp canal, passing through Dismal swamp from Elizabeth river to Pasquotank river; and the Albemarle and Chesapeake canal, connecting Chesapeake bay with Currituck, Albemarle, and Pamlico sounds. The last is navigable by vessels of 500 tons, and steam is exclusively used for towing and transportation. The receipts of cotton in 1872-'3 were 405,412 bales; in 1873-'4, 467,571. The value of imports into the customs district, which includes Portsmouth, for the year 1874, was $45,209; of exports, $3,906,-318: clearances for foreign ports, 96, tonnage 50,698; coastwise clearances, 1,183, tonnage 1.119.029; belonging in the district on June 30, 376 vessels, of 12,029 tons, viz.: 313 sailing vessels, 6,236 tons; 51 steamers, 4,826 tons; and 12 barges, 967 tons. The port is connected with Richmond, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York by regular lines of steamers. Large quantities of oysters and early fruits and vegetables an- shipped to northern ports. There are two national banks, with an aggregate capital of 1400,000; seven state and savings banks, with an aggregate capital of $400,000; and a number of manufactories.
The city is governed by a mayor, a select council, and a common council. It has water and gas works, several charitable institutions, 26 churches and chapels (5 colored), three daily, one tri-weekly. and two weekly newspapers, and six public and several private schools and academies, among which is St. John's theological seminary (Roman Catholic). - Norfolk was founded in 1705. incorporated as a borough in 1736, and as a city in 1845. It was burned by the British m 1776 and severely visited by yellow fever in 185a It was prominent during the first year of tin civil war. At the commencement of 1861 there were in the navy yard 12 vessels of war undergoing repairs. Among these were the Pennsylvania, of 120 guns, one of the largest war vessels then afloat, the sailing frigate Cumberland, and the steam frigate Merrimack. The repairs of the last two were nearly completed, and Commodore McCauley, the commander of the navy yard, was directed, April 16, to get them ready for sea. In the mean while a body of Virginia troops under Gen. Taliaferro had entered the city, and an agreement was entered into between him and McCauley to the effect that none of the vessels should be removed from the navy yard, and no shot fired except in self-defence. But McCauley decided to destroy what he could not remove, and gave orders to burn or scuttle all the vessels except the Cumberland. He was soon superseded by Capt. Paulding, who undertook to complete what McCauley had begun.
Fire was set to the navy yard; the Pennsylvania was burned to the water's edge, the Merrimack was scuttled, and the Cumberland sailed away. But the workshops and founderies were little injured; the Merrimack was soon raised, and converted into an iron-clad, which was named the Virginia; and Norfolk became the chief naval depot of the confederacy. The necessity of concentrating all the forces in Virginia for the defence of Richmond compelled the abandonment of Norfolk, May 3, 1862, and on the 10th formal possession was taken by the federals, who retained undisputed hold of it until the close of the war.