An E. Central County Of Pennsylvania, bounded W. by the Susquehanna river and its W. branch, and intersected by the N. branch; area, about 500 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 41,444. The surface is mountainous, but between the ranges lie broad and fertile valleys. Canals run along the N. and W. branches, and the county is intersected by the Philadelphia and Erie, Northern Central, Philadelphia and Reading, and other railroads. The chief productions in 1870 were 335,264 bushels of wheat, 37,526 of rye, 510,418 of Indian corn, 463,634 of oats, 25,139 of buckwheat, 227,658 of potatoes, 15,759 lbs. of wool, 486,128 of butter, and 25,831 tons of hay. There were 5,406 horses, 6,117 milch cows, 4,896 other cattle, 5,602 sheep, and 12,495 swine; 12 manufactories of brick, 12 of carriages and wagons, 1 of cars, 17 of clothing, 14 of furniture, 13 of iron forged, cast, etc, 27 of lime, 8 of machinery, 13 of saddlery and harness, 17 of tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware, 20 flour mills, 7 planing mills, 19 saw mills, 26 tanneries, and 19 currying establishments.
An E. County Of Virginia, at the mouth of the Potomac, bounded E. by Chesapeake bav; area, about 200 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 6,863, of whom 3,054 were colored. It has an undulating surface and a moderately fertile soil. The chief productions in 1870 were 20,061 bushels of wheat, 158,483 of Indian corn, 22,871 of oats, 8,210 of Irish and 10,185 of sweet potatoes, 3,507 lbs. of wool, 19,860 of butter, and 1,368 gallons of sorghum molasses. There were 703 horses, 1,178 milch cows, 3,046 other cattle, 1,794 sheep, and 4,702 swine. Capital, Heathsville.
Canada A County Of Ontario, bordering S. on Lake Ontario; area, 743 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 39,086, of whom 13,349 were of Irish, 13,271 of English, 6,153 of Scotch, 3,313 of German, 1,498 of Dutch, and 901 of French origin. Rice lake, a considerable body of water, is on the border of the county, and several streams flow into Lake Ontario. It is traversed by the Grand Trunk and the Cobourg, Peterborough, and Marmora railways. Capital, Cobourg.
Canada An. E. County Of New Brunswick, bordering on the gulf of St. Lawrence; area, 4,760 sq. in.; pop. in 1871, 20,116, of whom 8,009 were of Irish, 6,895 of Scotch, 3,002 of English, and 1,377 of French origin. It is drained by the Miramichi river and its branches, is heavily timbered, and has a diversified surface. Its commerce is important. Capital, Newcastle.
Northumberland, the northernmost county of England, bounded N. W. by Scotland, from which it is partly separated by the river Tweed, E. by the North sea, S. by Durham and Cumberland, and W. by Cumberland; area, 1,952 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 386,646. In the west it is mountainous, being covered by the Cheviot hills; but along the coast it is level, with a highly fertile soil. The Tyne, Blyth, Coquet, Aln, Till, and Tweed are the principal streams. The county contains vast quantities of coal, frequently found together with limestone, lead ore in the mountains to the southwest, iron ore in various parts, and many excellent qualities of stone. The principal agricultural products are wheat, oats, and barley; and the science of agriculture has been so highly developed that it has become a school to which many resort. Coal and iron are the bases of most of the manufacturing operations. Interesting remains of the Roman era exist, and there are many ruined castles. The principal towns are Newcastle, the chief centre of trade, Tynemouth, North Shields, Morpeth, and Alnwick, the capital.