Notchatel, Or Nenehatd (Ger. Neuenburg).

I.A.W Canton Of Switzerland

A.W Canton Of Switzerland, consisting of the former principality of Ncufchatel and the county of Valengin or Valendis, bounded N. and n. E. by the canton of Bern, S. E. by Fri-bourg and Vaud, S. by Vaud, and W. and N. W. by France; greatest length 36 m., greatest breadth 13½ m.; area, 312 sq.m.; pop. in 1870, 97,284. Several ridges of the Jura mountains traverse the canton. The lake of Neufchatel, 28 m. long, 7 m. wide, and 400 ft. deep, separates the canton from Fribourg and Vaud, and is connected with the Rhine by several smaller lakes and streams. Wine, fruit, hemp, flax, and grain are the principal products, but the grain crop is not sufficient for home use. The raising of cattle is the most important branch of rural industry. With the exception of about 11,500 Roman Catholics, 1,000 of other Christian denominations, and 700 Jews, the people belong to the Reformed church. French is the prevailing language. Watch making (chiefly at Chaux-de-Fonds and Locle), lace making, and cotton manufacture are the leading industrial pursuits. The constitution of the canton is democratic. - Xeufchatel belonged to Burgundy until 1032, when it became part of the German empire.

After having been a fief of the counts of Fribourg and the margraves of Hochberg, it became a possession of the Lon-gueville family, and after its extinction in 1707 was inherited by Frederick I. of Prussia, as successor to the rights of the house of Orange. It remained under the house of llohenzollern as a principality with a separate government till 1806, when Napoleon received it in exchange of territory from Frederick William III., and gave it as a principality to Marshal Berthier. In 1814 the king of Prussia regained possession of Ncufchatel, and procured its admission into the Swiss confederacy, it being the only canton with a monarchical constitution. In 1848 a revolutionary movement severed the connection with the house of Prussia; and an attempt of the royalist party in 1857 to reinstate the royal authority baving been frustrated, the independence of the canton was at last recognized by Frederick William IV., May 26, 1857.

II. A Town

A Town, capital of the canton, at the embouchure of the river Seyon into the lake of Neufchatel, 25 m. W. of Bern; pop. in 1870, 13,321. It is picturesquely built on a steep slope of the Jura, and contains many line buildings. An ancient castle on the heights has been converted into public offices; the Gothic church adjoining the castle contains a monument to the reformer Farel. There is a museum, with a fine picture gallery; a public library with 30,000 volumes, and having many manuscript letters of Rousseau; a college in which Agas-siz was once professor; an observatory famous for its geodetical labors; an orphan asylum and two hospitals munificently endowed by private citizens, one of whom, David Pury, in 1786 left 4,000,000 livres to these institutions and for other public purposes; his statue stands in front of the gymnasium. The principal manufactures are clocks and watches, paper, lace, straw hats, and spirits.

Castle of Neufchatel.

Castle of Neufchatel.