Nuevo Leon, an inland state of Mexico, bordering on Coahuila, Tamaulipas, and San Luis Potosi; area, 14,363 sq. m.; pop. in 1869, 174,000, but reported by the governor in 1872 at 178,871. The surface is very irregular, being traversed by several branches of the Sierra Madre; and about one fourth belongs to the great central table land of Mexico. Extensive valleys, divided between forest, pasture land, and cultivated fields, lie between the mountains, and are intersected by numerous rivers. Most of these have precipitous courses, and none are navigable. Among the more considerable are the Salado, separating the state from Coahuila, the Sabinas, Salinas, Santa Catalina, San Juan, Ramos, Pilon, Linares, and Blanco; besides which there are numberless mountain torrents, and several small lakes. The mineral productions comprise gold, silver, copper, lead, iron, and cinnabar; sulphur, nitrate of potash, several varieties of sulphate of lime, alabaster, and marble are found; and salt is very abundant, but not yet worked to much extent.
Sulphur and thermal springs are common, particularly in the vicinity of Monterey and Morelos. The climate is hot, humid, and insalubrious in the lowlands and some of the vallevs, where malignant and intermittent fevers prevail; temperate in the elevated regions; and varied in the hill country of the centre. The soil is in general fertile, but suffers from want of irrigation. The principal productions are maize, usually yielding three crops annually, and the sugar cane, with some beans (frijolcs), and a little wheat and barley. Mining is carried on to a limited extent; and cotton cloths, hats, furniture, leather, and boots and shoes, all of excellent quality, are extensively manufactured. In the weaving establishments, some of which have steam power, about 5,000 workers are employed. The annual value of the sugar manufactured is about $300,000. Cattle rearing, once an important industry, is comparatively neglected. In 1873 there were in the state 104 public schools, 85 of which were for males, with an attendance of 5,222, and 19 for females, with 1,220 pupils; 106 private schools, 75 being for males and 31 for females, the former with 2,408 pupils, and the latter with 982; and a civil college, a seminary, and a college for females, with 312, 63, ami 65 pupils respectively.
Nuevo Leon, in colonial times called the kingdom of Nuevo Leon, is divided into nine partidos or districts: Monterey, Cadereita, Villaldama, Salinas, Victoria, Doctor Arroyo, Garcia, Morelos, Cerral-vo, and Linares. The capital is Monterey; other chief towns are Cadereita, Linares, and Morelos.