Oakland, a S. E. county of Michigan, drained by branches of the Clinton and Huron rivers and other streams; area, 900 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 40,876. The surface is undulating and in the north hilly, and the soil is generally fertile and well cultivated. About 50 small lakes are scattered over the surface. The Detroit and Milwaukee and the Flint and Pere Marquette railroads pass through it. The chief productions in 1870 were 1,142,623 bushels of wheat, 1,143,443 of Indian corn, 752,359 of oats, 133,867 of barley, 42,588 of buckwheat, 707,936 of potatoes, 1,654,621 lbs. of butter, 703,876 of wool, 81,300 of hops, and 79,709 tons of hay. There were 12,991 horses, 13,668 milch cows, 14,110 other cattle, 162,852 sheep, and 19,873 swine; 8 manufactories of agricultural implements, 29 of carriages and wagons, 6 of plaster, 14 of saddlery and harness, 5 of sash, doors, and blinds, 11 of cooperage, 7 of tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware, 4 of woollen goods, 12 iron founderies, 23 flour mills, and 3 saw mills.
Oakland, a city of Alameda co., California, on the E. shore of San Francisco bay, here 7 m. wide, opposite San Francisco, at the terminus of the Central Pacific railroad; pop. in 1860, 1,549; in 1870, 10,500; in 1875, about 22,000. It occupies a beautiful site, and derives its name from a grove of evergreen oaks in which it was originally built, but beyond which it has now expanded. The streets are broad, well shaded, sewered, and lighted with gas, and water is supplied from a creek 5 m. distant. In the vicinity are charming drives. Oakland is a favorite residence of persons doing business in San Francisco, and is much resorted to from that city for its drives and tine scenery. At Berkeley, 4 m. N., is the university of California. The state institution for the deaf, dumb, and blind, near by, was burned in January, 1875. San Antonio creek, a small bay or estuary on the S. front of the city, forms a good harbor, but it is obstructed by a bar at its mouth, preventing the passage of large vessels at low tide. The western water front is shallow, and here a pier, along which the Central Pacific railroad runs to connect with the ferry steamers for San Francisco, projects for 2 m. into the bay.
Besides railroad tracks, this pier contains a broad carriageway, a passenger depot, warehouses, etc, and has three large docks. Oakland has three savings banks, with a joint capital of $3,000,000; graded public schools, including a high school, with an average attendance of 3,000 pupils; three daily and three weekly newspapers, and 15 churches. It is the seat of the Pacific theological seminary (Congregational), organized in 1866, and having in 1873-'4 7 instructors, 13 students, and two libraries of 3,500 volumes each. Oakland was incorporated as a city in 1854.