I. Nicolas Charles

Nicolas Charles, duke of Reggio, a French soldier, born in Bar-sur-Ornain, April 26, 1767, died in Paris, Sept. 13, 1847. He early enlisted, but retired from the army in 1787. In 1792 he was elected commander of the third battalion of the Meuse, attained the rank of colonel by his defence of the castle of Bitsch, was made brigadier general in 1794 for his bravery in the battle of Moorlautern, suc-cessfullv conducted several operations under Moreau in the campaign of 1796 on the Danube, and became general of division in 1799. He contributed to the success of Massena in the battle of Zurich. In command of a picked corps he shared in the campaign of 1805 against Austria, and contributed to'the victory of Austerlitz. For his services in the campaigns in Prussia and Poland (1806-7), and chiefly at Ostrolenka and Friedland, he was rewarded with the title of count and with 1,000,000 francs. In command of the vanguard of the French army in 1809, he distinguished himself at Essling and Wagrain, and was created marshal and duke of Reggio, with an income of 100,000 francs.

In 1812 he led the second corps in the invasion of Russia, and so skilfully protected the crossing of the Beresina that he was hailed as the "preserver of the army." In 1813 he fought at Bautzen, was defeated by Bernadotte at Grossbeeren, and severely wounded at Leip-sic. On the fall of the emperor he joined the Bourbons, adhering to their cause during the hundred days. Under the second restoration he commanded the national guard of Paris, and in 1823 led the first corps of the French army in Spain. Louis Philippe made him chancellor of the legion of honor in 1839, and governor of the Invalides in 1842.

II. Nicolas Charles Victor

Nicolas Charles Victor, a French soldier, son of the preceding, born Nov. 3, 1791, died July 7, 1863. He served under Napoleon 1., the restoration, and Louis Philippe, participating in the expedition of Mascara (1835); was made general of division, and twice elected to the chamber of deputies. In 1848 he became a member of the constituent, and in 1849 of the legislative assembly. He com manded the expedition sent by Louis Napoleon against the Roman republic, landing at Civita Vecchia on April 25, 1849, and entering Rome, after a severe struggle, on July 2. Resuming his seat in the legislative assembly in 1851, he protested against the covp d'etat, was imprisoned for a time, and retired to private life.

OlESSMT. See Usiiant.

OlISTITI. See Marmoset.