Ontario (formerly Upper Canada or Canada West), a province of the Dominion of Canada, situated between lat. 41° 30' and 50° 30' N., and lon. 74° 25' and 90° 30 W.; area, according to the latest and most trustworthy estimates, 107,780 sq. m. Commencing at the W. extremity, it is bounded N. by the Northwest territories; N. E. by the province of Quebec, from which it is mostly separated by the Ottawa river; E. by the portion of Quebec between the Ottawa and St. Lawrence; S. E. by the St. Lawrence river, Lake Ontario, the Niagara river, and Lake Erie, which separate it from Quebec, New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio; W. by the Detroit river, Lake St. Clair, the river St. Clair, Lake Huron, and St. Mary's river or strait, which separate it from Michigan; W. and S. by Lake Superior, separating it from Michigan; S. by Pigeon river, separating it from Minnesota; and then W. by the Northwest territories. It consists of an irregular triangle, of which the sides are formed by the Ottawa river on the northeast, the St. Lawrence, Lake Ontario, Niagara river, and Lake Erie on the southeast, and the Detroit river, Lake St. Clair, the river St. Clair, Lake Huron, French river, Lake Nipissing, and the Matawan river on the northwest, and of a strip, varying in width from about 30 to nearly 200 m., stretching W. from French river along the N. shores of Lakes Huron and Superior, and comprising an area of about 45,000 sq. m.
The N. boundary, formed by the height of land that divides the waters flowing into Hudson bay from those flowing into Lakes Huron and Superior, is irregular, and has not been surveyed. From the E. extremity of the province, near the junction of the Ottawa and St. Lawrence, S. W. to the Detroit river, the distance is about 480 m. From the former point N. W. around the shores of the lakes to Pigeon river it is about 900 m. The distance N. and S. between Lake Ontario and Georgian bay is 70 m.; E. and W. between Ontario and Huron, 100 m.; N. and S. between Erie and Huron, 50 m.; and E. and W. between the Niagara and St. Clair rivers, 170 m. The province is divided for municipal and judicial purposes into 37 counties or unions of counties, and 5 judicial districts, viz.: Algoma (district), Brant, Bruce, Carleton, Elgin, Essex, Fronte-nac, Grey, Haldimand, Haliburton (provisional), Halton, Hastings, Huron, Kent, Lambton, Lanark, Leeds and Grenville, Lennox and Ad-dington, Lincoln, Middlesex, Muskoka (district), Nipissing (district), Norfolk, Northumberland and Durham, Ontario, Oxford, Parry Sound (district), Peel, Perth, Peterborough, Prescott and Russell, Prince Edward, Renfrew, Simcoe, Stormont, Dundas, and Glengarry (the last three united), Thunder Bay (district), Victoria, Waterloo, Welland, Wellington, Wentworth, and York. Bothwell, Cardwell, and Monck are legislative electoral districts, formed from portions of counties.
The cities with their number of inhabitants in 1871 are as follows: Toronto, the capital of the province, 56,092; Hamilton, 26,716; Ottawa, the capital of the Dominion, 21,545; London, 15,826; and Kingston, 12,407. The largest towns are Brant-ford, pop. 8,107; St. Catharines, 7,864; Belleville, 7,305; Guelph, 6,878; Chatham, 5,873; Port Hope, 5,114; and Brockville, 5,102. Other towns and villages in the order of population, with more than 2,000 inhabitants each, are Peterborough, Cobourg, Stratford, Windsor, Lindsay, Ingersoll, Woodstock, Goderich, Galt, Barrie, Owen Sound, Strathroy, Oshawa, Dundas, St. Mary's, Bowmanville, Napanee, Sarnia, Collingwood, Whitby, Petrolia, Paris, Prescott, Perth, Picton, Yorkville, St. Thomas, Brampton, Almonte, Cornwall, Gananoque, and Clinton. Sault Ste. Marie (pop. 879), on St. Mary's strait, is the principal place in the N. W. part of the province. - Ontario is the most populous province in the Dominion, and its growth has been very rapid. The population in 1791 was about 65,000. According to subsequent censuses, it has been as follows: 1821, 122,716; 1830, 210,437; 1839, 407,515; 1848, 723,292; 1851, 952,004; 1861, 1,396,091; 1871, 1,620,-851, of whom 1,131,334 were born in the province, 40,476 in Quebec, 7,852 in other parts of British America, 124,062 in England and Wales, 153,000 in Ireland, 90,807 in Scotland, 22,827 in Germany, and 43,406 in the United States. Of the total, 559,442 were of Irish, 439 429 of English, 328,889 of Scotch, 158,608 of German, 75,383 of French, 19,992 of Dutch, 13,435 of African, and 5,282 of Welsh origin; and 12,978 were Indians (chiefly Iroquois or Six Nations, with some Oneidas, Munsees, Wy-andots, Ottawas, Pottawattamies, Mississaguas, Mohawks, Ojibways, &c). There were 828,590 males and 792,261 females, 292,221 families, and 286,018 occupied dwellings.
There were 57,379 persons 20 years old and upward (29,-406 males and 27,973 females) unable to read, and 93,220 (42,589 males and 50,631 females) unable to write; 1,412 deaf and dumb persons, 1,009 blind, and 4,081 of unsound mind. Of the 463,424 persons returned as engaged in occupations, 228,708 belonged to the agricultural class, 29,082 to the commercial, 26,805 to the domestic, 93,871 to the industrial, and 16,759 to the professional; not classified, 68,199. The great body of the inhabitants is settled in the S. and S. W. portions of the province. The region N. of Lakes Huron and Superior is inhabited only by a few Indians, except at some isolated points. Immigration is now directed chiefly to the district between the Ottawa river and Georgian bay, where free grants of land are offered to settlers. The number of immigrants settling in the province in 1871 was 25,842; 1872, 28,129; 1873, 39,184. - The surface of the main triangle is for the most part gently undulating. A ridge of high land enters the province at Niagara falls, extending N. W. to Hamilton, and thence to and along the peninsula between Lake Huron and Georgian bay, and through the Manitoulin islands.
The Laurentian hills, crossing the Ottawa from Quebec, about 25 m. above the city of Ottawa, run S. to the St. Lawrence near Kingston, and thence W. to the S. E. extremity of Georgian bay. They then continue along the E. shore of the bay and around Lake Superior, near which they attain a height of 2,100 ft. The Blue mountains S. of Georgian bay attain a height of 1,900 ft. above Lake Huron. N. of Lake Huron the hills occasionally attain an elevation of from 400 to 700 ft. above the lake. The surfaces of these hills are generally rounded, but occasionally they exhibit rugged escarpments with surfaces of naked rock. The slopes are often gentle, and the valleys wide. The strip of country N. of Lake Superior is not well known. The shore of that lake is bold and rugged, the cliffs and eminences varying from 300 to 1,300 ft. in height. The land around Lake Nipigon is undulating and sometimes hilly, with some level tracts. - The province has a water front along the great lakes and their connecting waters of some 3,000 m., with many good harbors.
By means of canals around the falls and rapids there is continuous navigation from the head of Lake Superior to the gulf of St. Lawrence. The principal bays are the bay of Quinté, shut in from Lake Ontario near its E. end by the peninsula of Prince Edward, and Burlington bay, at the W. extremity of the same lake; the bay formed by Long point in the E. part of Lake Erie, and Pigeon bay, at its W. end; Georgian bay, enclosed from Lake Huron by the peninsula of Cabot's head and Grand Manitoulin island on the west, and the North channel, between Grand Manitoulin, Cockburn, and Drummond's islands on the south, and the mainland of the province on the north; Goulais and Batchewanning bays near the outlet of Lake Superior, Michi-picoten bay further N., and Nipigon, Black, and Thunder bays at the N. W. extremity of that lake. There are a number of inlets in Georgian bay, the most important of which are Owen sound in the southwest, Nottawasaga bay at the S. extremity, Matchedash bay in the southeast, and Parry sound on the E. shore.
The most important islands belonging to the province are a part of the Thousand islands in the St. Lawrence, Wolfe and Amherst islands at the E. extremity of Lake Ontario, Long Point in the E. and Point Pelee in the W. part of Lake Erie, Walpole island at the N. E. extremity of Lake St. Clair, Grand Manitoulin and Cockburn islands, with adjacent islets, in Lake Huron, St. Joseph's island at the S. entrance of St. Mary's strait, and Caribou, Michipicoten, Pic, Slate, Simpson's, St. Ignace, and Pie islands, in Lake Superior. The Ottawa river forms the boundary of the province (below Lake Temiscamin-gue) for about 400 m., and is navigable by steamers in the lower portion for about 250 m. Its chief tributaries are the Montreal river, which enters Lake Temiscamingue after a S. E. course of 120 m.; the Matawan, 45 m. long, the outlet of several lakes, the westernmost of which is separated only by a few miles from Lake Nipissing; the Petawawa, 160 m. long, which enters the Ottawa about 220 m. above its mouth; the Bonnechere, 110 m. long, 50 m. above the city of Ottawa; the Madawaska, 250 m. long, some miles lower down; below this the Mississippi, 100 m. long; the Rideau, which enters the main stream at Ottawa; and the South Petite Nation, 100 m. long, below that city.
The principal river emptying into Lake Ontario is the Trent (called above Pico lake the Otonabee), which after a tortuous course enters the bay of Quinté; it is navigable for a considerable distance by steamers. Grand river empties into the E. end of Lake Erie, after a S. E. course of about 130 m., 70 m. of which are navigable by small craft. The Thames (navigable to Chatham, 18 m.) discharges into Lake St. Clair after a S. W. course of 160 m. The principal streams that discharge direct into Lake Huron are the Maitland and Saugeen. The chief affluents of Georgian bay are the Nottawasaga river, emptying into the bay of the same name; the Severn, discharging at the S. E. extremity of Matchedash bay; the Muskoka, a few miles N.; the Maganetawan, 100 m. long, N. of this; and French river, at the N. end of the main bay. French river is 50 or 60 m. long, and discharges the waters of Lake Nipissing; it has several mouths, and is little else than a continuous chain of long narrow lakes, connected by rapids or falls. N. of French river are successively the Wahnapitae and White Fish rivers, the former the outlet of Wahnapi-taeping lake; and beyond these, and emptying into the North channel, are Spanish, Serpent, Mississagui, and Thessalon rivers, the last near the entrance of St. Mary's strait.
Spanish river is navigable by small craft for 35 m. Lake Superior receives among other streams the Michipicoten, emptying into the bay of the same name; the Pic, into the N. E. extremity of the lake; the Nipigon, into Nipigon bay; the Black Sturgeon, into Black bay; and the Kaministiquia, into Thunder bay. The principal falls are those of Niagara, the Chaudiere falls in the Ottawa just above the city of Ottawa, and the falls of Kakabika or Cleft Rock in the Kaministiquia, about 30 m. above its mouth. The Kaministiquia here contracts to the width of about 50 yards, and is precipitated down a perpendicular precipice more than 130 ft. high into a deep chasm. The river banks for nearly half a mile below rise perpendicularly, and in many places overhang their bases. For about 20 m. below the falls the river forms a continued rapid. There are numerous lakes. From Lake Ontario N. between the Ottawa and Georgian bay, and thence around Lake Superior, the country is studded with them, most of the streams consisting of little else than chains of lakes.
Just N. of Lake Ontario, in Peterborough and Victoria cos., is a series of them, which discharge through the river Trent. The largest lakes of the province are Simcoe, 30 by 18 m., S. E. of Georgian bay, into which it discharges through the Severn river; Muskoka, 15 by 8 m., N. of Simcoe and discharging through the Muskoka river; Nipissing, 50 by 15 m.; and Nipigon, 70 by 50 m., discharging through the river and bay of the same name into the N. extremity of Lake Superior. The watershed of Nipigon lake forms the N. extremity of the province. Lake Te-miscamingue, on the Quebec border (about lat. 47° 30', lon. 79° 30'), is an expansion of the Ottawa river, at the point where it changes from a W. to a S. E. course. - The geological formations that occur in the province are the Laurentian, Huronian, Silurian, and Devonian. The region N. of Lakes Huron and Superior is mostly occupied by the lower Laurentian. The shore and islands of the latter, however, from Pigeon river E. to Nipigon bay, consist of the Quebec group of the lower Silurian, while an area of the Huronian occurs in the N. E. angle of Lake Superior. A belt of the Huronian also stretches along the North channel from St. Mary's strait to the N. extremity of Georgian bay, whence it runs N. E. to Lake Temiscamingue. S. E. of this belt the region between the Ottawa river and Georgian bay is occupied by the lower Laurentian, which extends to the St. Lawrence at the Thousand islands.
The E. extremity of the province is occupied by the Quebec and Trenton groups of the lower Silurian, which are separated from the lower Laurentian on the west by an irregular line drawn from the St. Lawrence below the Thousand islands to the Ottawa about 25 m. above Ottawa city. The S. W. limit of the lower Laurentian is a line from Kingston to the head of Matchedash bay. The country S. and W. of this line is occupied in succession by belts of the lower, middle, and upper Silurian formations, and of the Devonian. These belts have a general E. and W. or S. E. and N. W. direction. The middle Silurian extends through the peninsula of Cabot's head and the Manitoulin islands, in which the lower Silurian also appears. The mineral wealth of Ontario has been but little developed. Iron is found in large quantities in the region between Georgian bay and the Ottawa, a short distance back from Lake Ontario; and in the same district occur copper, lead, plumbago, antimony, arsenic, manganese, heavy spar, calc spar, gypsum, marble, and building stone. Gold lias been found here, but not in paying quantities, and mica is profitably worked. Building stones also occur in the S. W. part of the province, where there are apparently inexhaustible petroleum wells.
There are productive salt wells on the E. shore of Lake Huron S. of Georgian bay. Large beds of peat exist in various localities, and two companies are engaged in its manufacture into fuel. Apatite or phosphate of lime is obtained in considerable quantities in the E. part of the province. Iron mines have been opened in several places, the principal of which are at Marmora in Hastings co., yielding from 20,000 to 30,000 tons of ore annually. Gold mines have been opened at Marmora, but have not yet been profitably worked. N. of Lake Huron, near the entrance of St. Mary's strait, are the Bruce copper mines; the ore yields 19 per cent, of copper. The product of ore for four years has been as follows:
1869, 2,180 tons; 1870, 1,945; 1871, 1,852; 1872, 1,214, besides 243 tons of copper precipitate yielding 04 per cent, of copper. Silver is found en the shores of Lake Superior, particularly in the vicinity of Thunder bay, Silver islet in that bay containing one of the richest veins of the metal ever discovered. Mining operations were commenced on the islet about 1870, and the yield to the close of navigation in 1872 was $1,232,438 79, of which $048,132 01 was produced in 1871 and 8469,038 20 in 1872. The quantity of petroleum produced during the three years ending June 30, 1873, was as follows:
Number of refiners.
Crude oil used, gallons.
Refined oil produced, gallons.
The climate is healthy. The winters are cold, and the heat in summer is occasionally severe. The S. W. portion has the mildest climate, while in the region N. of Lakes Huron and Superior the summers' are short and the winters long and severe. The following table gives the most important results of meteorological observations for 33 years at Toronto (lat. 43° 39'), and for different periods at Windsor (lat, 42° 20') on the Detroit river, at Pembroke (lat. 45° 50') on the Ottawa, at Little Current (lat. 46°) on Grand Manitoulin island, and at Fort William (lat. 48° 23') on Thunder bay:
AVERAGE MEAN TEMPERATURE.
Average annual precipitation of rain and melted snow.
Agriculture is the chief occupation of the inhabitants. The soil varies in different localities, a large proportion being of excellent quality. The S. W. peninsula has been justly regarded as the garden of Canada, the influence of the surrounding bodies of water harmonizing with the natural richness of the soil. Wheat is the staple crop of the province, and large quantities are produced. Oats, barley, rye, potatoes, turnips, and Indian corn are also grown, but the last is not profitably cultivated, except in the S. and S. W. parts, the climate elsewhere being too cold. In the southwest the peach ripens and grows well, and the apple orchards of this district are very productive. Pears, plums, grapes, cherries, and various kinds of berries thrive. The extensive district lying between the Ottawa river and Georgian bay contains large tracts of fertile land, and produces a great variety of timber. This district has been distinguished into white pine and red pine and hard wood countries, owing to the prevalence in different places of those different descriptions of timber. The white pine country lies to the east, and the red pine immediately W. of it. The soil of the red pine country is sandy and poor, gravelly or stony, with a rugged, uneven, and rocky surface.
The other division contains a mixture of good and tolerable land, generally fit for agricultural purposes. Excepting where tracts of hard wood land occur at intervals, the red pine country is pronounced, on official authority, unfit for settlement. W. of these two divisions lies the hard wood country. Among the timber which gives its name to this section are interspersed belts of red pine, the white having totally disappeared. This strip extends W. at one point 75 m., and has a length of 130 m. from S. E. to N. W. Between this strip and Georgian bay lies a belt from 20 to 30 m. in breadth of barren soil, frequently terminating in naked rock near the shores of the bay. To the south, near the ridge dividing the waters of the Ottawa from those which flow directly into the St. Lawrence, belts of poor, rugged, stony land, about 20 m. in width and unfit for settlement, occur. N. and W. of Lake Nipissing the land is good, but on the French river it is rocky and barren. In the district between the Ottawa and Georgian bay lumbering is extensively carried on. In the westernmost section of the province, N. of Lakes Huron and Superior, the timber, consisting chiefly of spruce, balsam fir, white birch, poplar, and cedar, is generally of little commercial value.
Some of the higher points are bare of trees, and the land available for agricultural purposes is chiefly confined to the flats and valleys at the mouths of the streams. Between the Batchewauning and Goulais bays and the Missisagui river, in the rear of the village of Sault Ste. Marie, the country is fine, producing hard wood on the ridges, and presenting in the broad, alternating flats a deep alluvial soil. Among the hard wood there is a sufficiency of white pine for building purposes; the flats are principally covered with cedar, tamarack, ash, elm, soft maple, and birch, except where small prairies, bearing a luxuriant growth of grass, intervene. The whole country, where it has been surveyed and explored, from Lake Superior to Lake Nipissing, presents, among the rugged and broken portions that intervene, many extensive valleys of excellent land, well adapted for settlement. And even in the more rugged and less prolific portions groves of fine pine timber are frequently met, and indications of mineral wealth present themselves. The valley of the Spanish river presents important facilities for settlement, all the land being of good quality or bearing a rich crop of excellent pine.
In the region N. of Lake Superior it is believed that oats, barley, hay, potatoes, the ordinary vegetables, and in places wheat, may be successfully cultivated. In the vicinity of Lake Nipigon there is much good land, and the climate appears to be as well suited to agriculture as that of the greater part of the province of Quebec. The timber here consists chiefly of white spruce, white birch, aspen, poplar, balsam fir, tamarack, and white cedar, with occasional trees of black ash, gray elm, and white pine. - The wild animals, except the smaller species, have mostly disappeared in the S. portions of the province. Domestic animals, horses, cattle, sheep, and swine, are extensively raised. In the north and west fur-bearing animals are still trapped by the Indians, and the Hudson Bay company has several posts there. The great lakes, as well as many of the smaller ones and many of the streams, abound in fish. The value of the catch for the year ending June 30, 1874, was $446,267 50, consisting chiefly of whitefish, with some trout, herring, and other species. Fourteen vessels, 804 boats, and 2,195 men were employed. - Water power is abundant, but manufactures, though increasing, are yet comparatively undeveloped, while many of the establishments already in operation use steam power.
The principal articles manufactured are cotton and woollen goods, linen, furniture, lumber, hardware, paper, soap, starch, hats and caps, boots and shoes, leather, steam engines, sewing machines, etc. (For industrial statistics, see Appendix to this volume.) - The value of exports to foreign countries for the year ending June 30, 1874, was $25,157,087, viz.: produce of mines, $1,135,418; of the fisheries, $78,-597; of the forest, $7,322,811; animals and their products, $4,742,020; agricultural produce, $7,573,157; manufactures, $528,451; the rest miscellaneous, including goods not the produce of Canada. Of the whole amount, $2,132,786 was to Great Britain and $19,728,-081 to the United States. The value of imports from foreign countries for the same period was $49,443,977; of goods entered for home consumption, $48,476,357, of which $15,386,224 was from Great Britain and $31,694,999 from the United States. The principal items of import are sugar, tea, coal, Indian corn, wheat, hogs, iron and iron manufactures, locomotives and railroad cars, cottons, woollens, fancy-goods, and other manufactured articles.
The number of entrances from the United States (with which country alone the direct foreign commerce is carried on) for the above mentioned year was 13,753, with an aggregate tonnage of 2,516,927; clearances for the United States, 13,979, tonnage 2,325,717; built during the year, 77 vessels, tonnage 15,478. The number of vessels belonging in the province at the close of 1873 was 681, with an aggregate tonnage of 89,111. - The railroad system of the province has been rapidly extended during the past ten years, and now connects the principal points with each other, and with the United States and the province of Quebec. In 1874 there were 2,404 m. of railway, as follows:
Miles in operation in the province.
Brockville and Ottawa
Erie and Niagara branc
Cobourg, Peterborough, and Marmora....
Grand Trunck (W. Division)
Detroit, Mich. (564 m.)...........
Fort Erie, opposite Buffalo. N. Y.
Clifton, on Niagara river
Windsor, opposite Detroit........
Canada air line
Glencoe (150 m.); completed to St.
Allanburg, on Welland railway
Hamilton and Lake Erie
Kingston and Pembroke
Pembroke (120 m.); completed to
London and Port Stanley..
St. Lawrence and Ottawa
Toronto and Nipissing
Lake Nipissing (240 m.); completed to Coboconk or Shedden.
Toronto, Grey, and Bruce
Owen Sound branch
Wellington Grev and Bruce
South extension.. ................
Whitby and Port Perry
There are a number of other lines projected or in progress. The principal canals are the Wel-land, 28 m. long, from Port Dalhousie to Port Colborne; and the Rideau, from Kingston to Ottawa, 126 m. long, including the Oataraqui and Rideau rivers. There are also a number of short canals around rapids in the St. Lawrence and Ottawa rivers. Nine banks were reported on Sept. 30, 1874, with a paid-up capital of $14,554,962, besides which there are numerous branches of banks of the province of Quebec. - The government is administered by a lieutenant governor, appointed by the governor general of the Dominion in council for live years, assisted by an executive council of five members (attorney general, commissioner of agriculture and secretary and registrar, treasurer, commissioner of crown lands, and commissioner of public works), appointed by himself and responsible to the assembly. The legislative authority is vested in a single chamber, styled the house of assembly, consisting of 88 members elected by the qualified voters by districts for four years. Voting is by ballot, and the right of suffrage is conferred on all male British subjects 21 years of age, possessed of a small property qualification.
The judicial power is vested in a court of error and appeal, a court of queen's bench, a court of common pleas, a court of chancery, county courts, and division courts. The first consists of a chief justice and six judges, and has appellate jurisdiction of judgments of the queen's bench, common pleas, and chancery courts. The queen's bench and common pleas each consist of a chief justice and two puisne judges, and have concurrently with each other general original jurisdiction in criminal cases and in civil cases at common law, and appellate jurisdiction of judgments of the county courts. The court of chancery consists of a chancellor and two vice chancellors, and has general original jurisdiction in equity. The judges of the courts named are appointed by the governor general of the Dominion in council for life. A county judge is appointed by the lieutenant governor for each county or union of counties, who holds a county court with jurisdiction of certain civil actions not involving more than £50 or £100, according to the nature of the case; a court of general sessions, with jurisdiction of offences not capital; and a surrogate court, with probate powers. Each county or judicial district is divided into court divisions for division court purposes.
These courts are held by a county judge or other magistrate, and make summary disposition of cases not involving more than £10 or £25 according to the nature of the suit. Ontario is represented in the Dominion parliament by 24 senators and 88 members of the house of commons. The balance in the provincial treasury on Jan. 1, 1874, was $277,948 05; receipts during the following nine months, $2,413,228 89, including $1,333,569 42 subsidy from the Dominion government; amount withdrawn from special deposit, $1,253,380 92; total amount in treasury during the period, $3,944,557 86; total payments, $2,558,887 81; invested (special deposits), $1,200,000; balance in treasury Sept. 30, 1874, $185,670 05. The following were some of the more important items of expenditure: for the civil government, $117,244 49; legislation, $108,910 76; colonization roads, $52,804 15; administration of justice, $145,792 25; public buildings, $229,043 41; maintenance of public institutions, $198,100 91; agriculture, arts, etc, $74,356 24; immigration, $74,162 83; hospitals and charities, $43,020; education, 8418,403 05; public works, $74,400 54. - The charitable and correctional institutions controlled by or receiving aid from the province are placed under the supervision of a government inspector.
The provincial institutions are the insane asylums at London and Toronto, the former having a custodial department for idiots and a department for the chronic insane; the institution for the education of the deaf and dumb, at Belleville; the institution for the education of the blind, at Brantford; the central prison, at Toronto; and the provincial reformatory for boys, at Penetangui-shene. The central prison, opened on June 1, 1874, is designed for the incarceration of persons convicted of the graver class of misdemeanors; the labor of the prisoners is leased to the Canada car company. There is a penitentiary at Kingston under the control of the Dominion, in which convicted felons are incarcerated; number of convicts at the close of 1873, 384. The Rockwood insane asylum at Kingston is under the control of the Dominion; it is used for the custody of insane convicts, but the greater number of its inmates are not convicts, being insane persons received from Ontario and supported at the expense of that province.
A provincial inebriate asylum was provided for by an act of 1873, and buildings are (1875) in course of construction at Hamilton. There are a few paying patients in the insane asylum and pupils in the deaf and dumb and blind institutions, but far the greater number are supported at the public expense. The inspector in his last annual report recommends the establishment of a training school for idiots and an industrial reformatory for women. The statistics of the institutions controlled or aided by the province for the year ending Sept. 30, 1874, are as follows:
Number in institution during year.
Remaining at close of ytar.
Amount expended by the province.
Toronto insane asylum....
Kingston insane asylum...
Deal' and dumb institution.
Common jails (38).........
Orphan asvlums (11).....'.
Newsboys1 lodging house, Toronto................
Magdalen asvlums (2).....
There were 21 insane convicts at the close of the year in the Kingston asylum, and 55 insane persons in jails. The number of persons receiving outdoor treatment or relief from the hospitals during the year was 9,184. The receipts from the institutions under provincial control amounted to $37,448 15. - The province has an excellent system of free public schools, under the general management of a chief superintendent of education and three high school inspectors for the province, 77 public school inspectors in the different cities and towns, and counties or divisions of counties, and boards of trustees for the various school sections or districts. Besides these, which are unsectarian, there are Roman Catholic separate schools, which receive aid from the provincial treasury. The school law provides for the establishment and maintenance of three classes of superior schools, viz.: classical and English high schools for both sexes; English high schools for both sexes; and collegiate institutes, in which there shall be an average daily attendance of at least GO boys in Greek and Latin. The public schools are open to all between the ages of 5 and 21 years, and children between 7 and 12 years of age are required to attend some school during a portion of the year.
An annual census of those between 5 and 16 is taken. The following table contains statistics of the educational institutions of the province for 1873:
* Number supported by the province.
† More than half this sum was paid by the counties.
County and district assessments and grants.
Normal and model schools
Public schools (ordinary grade)........
Roman Catholic separate schools....
Colleges and universities
Acadmies and private schools....
The separate receipts of the Roman Catholic schools amounted to $83,269 87, of which $13,358 07 was derived from legislative grants, $47,107 43 from school rates on supporters, and $22,744 37 from other sources. Of the teachers (5,642) in the public and separate schools, 2,581 were males and 3,061 females; of the pupils (460,984), 242,615 were males and 218,369 females; average attendance, 192,-190; average time of keeping schools open (including legal holidays), 11¼ months. The number of school sections or districts was 4,805; number of school houses, 4,791 (1,132 brick, 463 stone, 2,083 frame, and 1,112 log); number of children between 5 and 16 years of age, 504,869. Eight of the high schools were entitled to the name and privileges of collegiate institutes. The total amount expended for educational purposes in the province was $3,-258,125, viz.: for public and separate schools, $2,604,526, of which $1,520,123 was for teachers' wages and $1,084,403 for the erection and repair of school houses, etc.; for high schools, $198,297, of which $165,358 was for teachers' wages and $32,939 for the erection and repair of buildings, etc.; and for other educational institutions and purposes, $455,-302. The provincial normal school and the model schools mentioned in the table are at Toronto. A second normal school has recently been opened at Ottawa. The provincial school of agriculture was opened in 1874, on a farm of 550 acres, about a mile from Guelph. It comprises seven departments: agriculture, horticulture, natural sciences, chemistry, animal anatomy and physiology, English and mathematics, and practical work in farming, stock raising, horticulture, and mechanics.
There are a principal and four lecturers in the first six departments, and six instructors in the seventh. The course is two years. The establishment of a provincial school of practical science for instruction in mining, engineering, and the mechanical and manufacturing arts at Toronto was provided for by an act of. 1873. One of the principal educational institutions is University college (provincial) at Toronto, with a course in arts and two years' courses in civil engineering and agriculture. In 1873-'4 it had 15 instructors and 186 matriculated and 82 non-matriculated students. It was established by royal charter as King's college in 1827, and opened in 1843. In 1850 the name was changed to university of Toronto, and in 1853 the institution was divided into the University college and the university of Toronto, the latter merely holding examinations and conferring degrees. It has faculties of arts, law, and medicine. Other universities are Queen's (Presbyterian), with faculties of arts, medicine, and theology, at Kingston; Trinity (Episcopal), arts, medicine, and theology, at Toronto; Victoria (Methodist), arts, law, and theology, at Cobourg, and medicine at Toronto; Albert (Methodist Episcopal), arts, law, and theology, at Belleville; and the college of Ottawa (Roman Catholic), at Ottawa, with university powers.
Knox college (Presbyterian) at Toronto, and Huron college (Episcopal) at London, are chiefly for theological instruction. Assumption college (Roman Catholic) at Sandwich, Bishop Hellmuth college and Bishop Hellmuth ladies' college (Episcopal) at London, Upper Canada college at Toronto, the Wesleyan female college at Hamilton, and Alexandra female college (M. E.) at Belleville, are important institutions. The Canadian literary institute (Baptist), at Woodstock, has literary and theological departments. In 1873 there were 4,182 public libraries, with 755,302 volumes, of which 1,283, with 258,879 volumes, were free libraries, under the management of school trustees and municipal authorities, receiving some aid from the provincial treasury; 2,735, with 367,658 volumes, Sabbath school; and 164, with 128,765 volumes, miscellaneous. In 1874 there were 255 newspapers and periodicals, viz.: 23 daily, 1 triweekly, 1 semi-weekly, 212 weekly, 1 bi-weekly, 16 monthly, and 1 bi-monthly. - The statistics of the principal religious denominations, according to the census of 1871, are as follows:
Of the Baptists, 10,231 were Freewill Baptists and 11,438 Tunkers; of the Methodists, 286,-911 were Wesleyans, 02,198 Episcopal, 24,045 Primitive, 30,889 New Connection, and 18,225 Bible Christians; of the Presbyterians, 63,167 were connected with the church of Scotland. Among denominations not named in the table were Adventists, 1,449; Christian Brethren, 1,513; Plymouth Brethren, 1,689; Christian Conference, 11,881; Congregationalists, 12,-858; Evangelical Association, 4,522; Quakers, 7,106; Swedenborgians, 779; Unitarians, 1,088; Universalists, 1,722. - The French penetrated this region in the early part of the 17th century, and established some trading posts; but it did not begin to be permanently settled till toward the close of the 18th century. In 1763, with the rest of Canada, it passed into the hands of the British. In 1774 the newly acquired territory was organized as the province of Quebec. In 1791 it was divided into two provinces, Upper Canada and Lower Canada, and in 1841 these were reunited as the province of Canada. Upon the organization of the Dominion of Canada in 1867, they were again separated, and Upper Canada became the province of Ontario. An elective assembly was granted to the provinces in 1791, and in 1841 responsible government was introduced.
The only important disturbances of the peace of the province have been the war of 1812 between Great Britain and the United States and the Canadian rebellion of 1837. - See "Geological Survey of Canada: Report of Progress from its Commencement to 18G3 " (Montreal, 1863; with atlas, Montreal, 1865).