Orange (Lat. aurantium), the fruit of citrus aurantium and other species or varieties. The genus citrus and a few other allied genera were formerly grouped together as the orange family (auraniiacece), but recent botanists have classed them with the rue family, and according to the views of the best authorities the aurantia-ceat rank only as a subdivision or tribe of the rutaceoe. Besides the orange in its many varieties, the genus citrus includes the lemon, lime, citron, bergamot, and shaddock, which are described under their own names; but the description of the genus will be given here. The species of citrus are shrubs or small trees, often spiny, with evergreen aromatic leaves, the blade of which is jointed to the petiole (the leaf being properly compound), which is usually winged. The very fragrant flowers are axillary, solitary, or in small clusters, and have four to eight thickish petals; the stamens are numerous (20 to 60), with their filaments more or less united; the single compound pistil has its many-celled ovary surrounded at the base by a conspicuous disk; there is a single style and a knob-like lobed stigma.

The fruit is a large thick-rinded berry, separated into numerous divisions by membranous partitions, each containing a few seeds surrounded by large cells filled with juice. The wood is hard, heavy, and close-grained; the leaves, flowers, and rind of the fruit abound in aromatic oils, and the pulp of the fruit contains citric acid. Much confusion exists with regard to the number of species in this genus. Hooker and Ben-tham limit it to five, while others make more than that of oranges alone. Gallesio, who made a special study of the genus citrus, thinks that there are at least four species of orange, while on the other hand Bentham regards all the oranges but as varieties of the wild citrus medica or citron. For the present purpose it is convenient to regard the sweet oranges as varieties of C. aurantium, and the bitter ones as forms of C. vulgaris. All the species are natives of tropical India, and by cultivation have become distributed throughout the warmer portions of the globe. The sweet and bitter oranges are not distinguishable by any important botanical characters; the bitter has a broader wing to the leaf stalk; the fruit has a rougher rind, which is of a deeper reddish color, and its juice is more sour and bitter; all parts of the bitter orange are more strongly aromatic than the corresponding parts in the sweet orange.

The orange was introduced into Arabia and Syria, from which it found its way to Italy, Sicily, and Spain, about the 11th century; apparently the bitter orange was first introduced, and there is reason to believe that the sweet was not cultivated until the 15th century. The first importation of oranges into England was in 1290, in a cargo of assorted fruit from Spain. Not only are oranges much disposed to sport, but they are affected by soil, climate, and other conditions; established forms cross with one another, as do the kinds so unlike as to be regarded as species; a great number of named forms have resulted from one or another of these causes, some of which are singular monstrosities, such as those with horns, with one fruit produced from the centre of another, or those with the fruit deeply lobed - varieties only known in rare collections, and recorded and beautifully figured in the elaborate work of Risso and Poiteau. The time required after blossoming for the orange to mature varies in different climates; it is at least six months, and sometimes much longer. It is frequently said in books of travel that the flowering and ripening of the fruit are continuous, and that the trees have blossoms, green fruit in all stages, and ripe fruit upon them, at the same time.

The tree blooms but once a year, and the presence of ripe fruit at flowering time is due to the custom in some countries of allowing the fruit of the year before to remain upon the tree in order to attain greater perfection. In Italy the fruit that goes into commerce is picked as soon as mature and yet green, while that reserved for home use hangs on the tree all winter, and is in its greatest perfection the following spring and summer. - The Seville orange of commerce is a bitter variety, not common in our markets; its chief consumption is in making marmalade, and its rind is used as a tonic aromatic in several medicinal preparations; the peel is also candied and used in flavoring puddings and other cookery. This is the brigarade of the French, who have several varieties of it, including those with purple and double flowers. The ordinary oranges of commerce are subvarieties of the sweet orange, although they differ greatly in sweetness, and are distinguished by the names of the countries producing them, or the ports whence they are shipped; the Messina, St. Michael's, Maltese, and other oranges from the south of Europe are medium-sized, smooth, rather thin-skinned, and somewhat flattened fruit, with an abundant but not very sweet juice; these are imported in boxes, each orange being wrapped in soft paper.

The St. Michael's orange is seedless, and the blood orange of Malta has a crimson pulp. The mandarin or noble orange, which originated in China, is one of the most highly esteemed of all the varieties, and when occasionally offered in our markets it brings the highest price; it is a small, flattened, smooth fruit, of a rich color; the rind, when the fruit is fully ripe, separates spontaneously from the pulp, which is exceedingly rich and agreeable; this is so much unlike other oranges that it has been regarded as a distinct species and called citrus deliciosa. In China it is held in high regard and used as presents to the mandarins; it was introduced into Europe early in the present century, and is nowcultivated in Algeria, the Azores, Brazil, and other countries. The Tangerine oranges are regarded as subvarieties of the mandarin; the small Tangerine is only the size of an English walnut, while the large is twice that size, and they incline to a pyriform shape. The Havana oranges, which also come from other parts of the West Indies, are large, often rough-skinned, and very sweet; as they are imported in bulk, they are picked in a very green state, and are rarely seen in the market in their best condition.

A similar orange from Florida, having a shorter voyage and gathered when more nearly ripe, is generally of a better quality. The navel orange of Brazil, rarely offered for sale, is of superior excellence; it is usually seedless, very sweet, and has often a small protuberance at the upper end, from which it receives its name. The myrtle-leaved orange, which can hardly be regarded as a variety of commerce, is sold by the florists for a table decoration; it is a dwarf sweet orange with small leaves, and flattened fruit 1 to 3 in. in diameter; it is a profuse bearer, producing fruit when only 4 to 6 in. high, which remains on for several months. - The chief use of the orange is as a dessert fruit, and to afford a refreshing beverage in fevers, but the useful products of the tree are not confined to the ripe fruit. The yellowish finegrained wood is used for inlaid work and for making small turned articles; and straight shoots of suitable size, with the bark on, are imported for walking sticks. The leaves of the tree are bitter and aromatic, especially in the bitter orange.

In the lemon-growing districts of the Mediterranean the lemon trees are grafted upon orange stocks; these put forth vigorous shoots, which are allowed to grow several feet long, when they are cut and taken to the distiller, who prepares from them an aromatic water called cau de naphre, or extracts their essential oil, known as essence of petit grain; these shoots are also used for walking sticks. The true essence of petit grain is distilled from the small unripe fruits which fall during the summer; these are carefully gathered for the distiller, and give a volatile oil of a flavor superior to that from the leaves; the essence produced from the bitter orange is more valuable than that from the sweet, and that from the berries is preferred to the product of the leaves; these oils are used in the manufacture of cau de cologne and other perfumes, and are but little known to our commerce. The flowers of the orange, on account of their charming fragrance and pure whiteness, are considered essential to the bridal wreath, and the trees are cultivated by florists solely for their flowers; the bitter orange is preferred, as its flowers are more fragrant, and there are double and free flowering kinds especially suited for this use.

By distillation with water orange flowers afford an essential oil, the essence or oil of neroli, and the water from which this is separated is sold as orange-flower water. The oil received its name from having been used in the 17th century by Anne Marie, wife of the prince of Nerola, or Nero-li, as a perfume for her gloves. It possesses in a concentrated degree the fragrance of the flowers, and is much used in perfumes of various kinds; orange-flower water is employed in pharmacy to flavor mixtures, and sometimes in cooking. The oil of orange peel, or oil of orange, as it is known in commerce, is contained in the rind of the fruit in vesicles large enough to be visible without a glass, and its presence and inflammable character are easily shown by squeezing a fragment of the fresh peel near the flame of a lamp; though a vola-tile oil, it is, like that of the lemon, obtained by pressure; one of the methods is to squeeze strips of the peel by hand and receive the oil from the ruptured vesicles in a fragment of sponge, which when saturated is wrung out and the oil received in a bowl, where it separates from the water which accompanies it.

In France the oil from the bitter orange is known as the essence de bigarade, and that from the sweet as essence de Portugal. The use of the dried peel of the bitter orange has already been noted. A minor product of the orange tree, much less known now than formerly, is the issue peas; under this name the dried unripe fruits, turned smooth in a lathe, are kept in the shops, and are used to keep up the discharge from an issue, their odor making them preferable to ordinary peas, sometimes used for the same purpose. - The methods of cultivating the orange differ but little. In the south of France the tree probably receives a more systematic culture and careful pruning than elsewhere. In some localities the trees are multiplied by a kind of layering: a branch has a circle of bark removed and a mass of earth bound over the wound; this earth is kept moist until roots have formed in it, when the branch is severed and planted in the ground; but the general method is to raise stocks from seeds and bud them with desirable sorts, and it requires about 15 years from the time of sowing the seed for the tree to come into full bearing.

In this country the orange is cultivated as an object of profit in Florida, Louisiana, and southern California; Texas and some other states produce a small number for home consumption. In various parts of Florida, south of lat. 30°, especially along the St. John's and Indian rivers, there are immense groves of wild oranges; Bartram in his "Travels" mentions having seen in 1763, near Mosquito inlet, a ridge about half a mile wide and 40 m. long, which was one dense orange grove, interspersed with magnolias and a few other trees. So thoroughly established, is the tree, and so generally is it distributed, that many have supposed it to be indigenous; but botanists who have investigated the matter regard it as an instance of remarkable naturalization, and the trees as having descended from those which are known to have been introduced by the early Spanish colonists. This wild orange is bitter, often called in Florida the bitter-sweet, and so exceedingly fruitful that a tree in full bearing is an object of great beauty; the wild orange furnishes stocks on which to bud other varieties, and the fruit is used to make marmalade.

In Florida there are three methods of establishing an orange grove: to clear up a wild grove, removing all trees not needed, and budding with sweet fruit those that remain; to take up young wild trees and set them in prepared ground, and there bud them; and to raise stocks from seed, bud them in nursery rows, and when of sufficient size set them in the plantation, as is practised with other fruit. Each method has its advocates, and it is probable that the last named, though apparently slower, gives ultimately better results. Some maintain that there is no need of budding stocks raised from the seeds of sweet oranges, but that the fruit reproduces itself perfectly from the seed. Almost any soil that is not a heavy clay suits the orange, but in a light sandy one fertilizers must be applied. Severe frosts are fatal to the tree; in 1835 occurred a frost of such severity as to kill not only cultivated trees, but those in the wild groves. Insects of various kinds, especially a coccus or scale insect, are destructive; a kind of fungus affects the fruit and leaves, and there is another disease, not well understood, which causes the death of young growing shoots.

None of these are regarded as formidable if the trees have proper and timely attention, but if neglected the value of the grove is soon destroyed. The Jesuit missionaries early introduced the orange into the gardens of the mission stations of southern California, and some of these, notably that of Los Angeles, were in full bearing at the time the country came into our possession. The American settlers soon extended the culture of oranges, lemons, and such fruits, and it is now one of the principal industries of Los Angeles and its vicinity, and has extended to other parts of the state. In the season of 187l-'2 the orange crop of Los Angeles county was stated at 5,000,000, worth on the average $20 a thousand. In England orange culture became popular in the 17th century, and an orangery was regarded as an important part of the establishments of the wealthy; indeed, at that time the orange was the leading tender exotic in cultivation; the trees were imported from Italy and grown in boxes or tubs, which were placed out of doors in summer, and in winter taken to the orangery, which was usually a building of some architectural pretensions, with a ceiled roof and glass only upon the sides and ends. Such buildings have long since been replaced by those entirely of glass.

By giving the plants shelter in winter, where they will be protected from freezing, yet not have heat enough to induce growth, but sufficient light to keep them in health, the orange can be enjoyed as an ornamental tree in northern climates; but in order to have satisfactory crops of fruit it must have a heated structure especially devoted to it. - The imports of oranges into the United States from the Mediterranean in 1874 were 751,560 cases, of which 340,701 cases, containing 131,555,970 oranges, were received at New York, with a loss of 33 per cent. The receipts at New York from the west Indies in the same year were 21,540,130 oranges, on which the loss was 45 per cent. - There is but little recent literature upon orange culture; a useful pamphlet, "Orange Culture in Florida," by J. H. Fowler, was published in 1873 at Jacksonville, Fla. The standard European works are Traite du genus citrus, by Gal-lesio (Savona, 1818), and Histoire naturelle des orangers, by Risso and Poiteau. This most elegant work, with over 100 beautifully colored engravings, was originally issued at Paris in 1818, and within a few years has been republished under the editorship of the distinguished arboriculturist Du Breuil.

Orange (Citrus aurantium).

Orange (Citrus aurantium).

1. Section of Flower. 2. Section of Fruit. 3. Magnified Pistil.

1. Section of Flower. 2. Section of Fruit. 3. Magnified Pistil.

Orange with Horned Fruit.

Orange with Horned Fruit.

Mandarin Orange.

Mandarin Orange.