A N. County Of Vermont, bordering on Canada, watered by the Black, Barton, Clyde, Lamoille, and Missisque rivers; area, 700 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 13,364. It has an uneven surface, and lies between the E. and W. ranges of the Green mountains. Numerous small lakes or ponds are scattered over its surface, and Lake Memphremagog extends some distance within its borders. It is intersected by the Connecticut and Passumpsic Rivers railroad. The chief productions in 1870 were 56,432 bushels of wheat, 54,589 of Indian corn, 369,319 of oats, 21,376 of barley, 38,796 of buckwheat, 598,307 of potatoes, 1,738,526 lbs. of butter, 67,079 of cheese, 110,476 of wool, 254,429 of hops, 1,025,502 of maple sugar, and 68,757 tons of hay. There were 5,184 horses, 14,125 milch cows, 1,961 working oxen, 8,037 other cattle, 22,432 sheep, and 3,636 swine; 11 manufactories of carriages and wagons, 6 of sash, doors, and blinds, 13 of starch, 1 of woollen goods, 7 wool-carding and cloth-dressing establishments, 6 tanneries, and 36 saw mills.
A N. W. County Of New York, bordering on Lake Ontario, and watered by Oak Orchard, Johnson's, and Sandy creeks; area, 405 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 27,689. Its surface is traversed E. and W. by the lake and mountain ridges which divide it into three level or gently undulating plateaus, and the soil is generally fertile. The Erie canal and the New York Central railroad intersect it. The chief productions in 1870 were 550,046 bushels of wheat, 306,972 of Indian corn, 430,768 of oats, 142,785 of barley, 23,063 of buckwheat, 245,097 of potatoes, 134,760 of peas and beans, 793,562 lbs. of butter, 266,282 of wool, 58,258 of tobacco, 68,242 of hops, 25,031 of flax, and 38,-996 tons of hay. There were 883 horses, 7,731 milch cows, 6,411 other cattle, 49,615 sheep, and 7,883 swine; 4 manufactories of agricultural implements, 20 of carriages and wagons, 10 of cider, 20 of cooperage, 7 of saddlery and harness, 12 flour mills, and 21 saw mills. Capital, Albion.
A S. E. Parish Of Louisiana, chiefly on the left bank of the Mississippi river, bounded N. by Lake Pontchartrain, N. E. by the Rigolets pass connecting that lake with Lake Borgne, and S. E. by Lake Borgne; area, about 150 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 191,418, of whom 50,456 were colored. Since the census it has been somewhat enlarged by the transference of Carrollton from Jefferson parish to New Orleans. The population in 1875 is about 210,000, of whom rather less than one fourth are colored. The city of New Orleans embraces the greater portion of it, the islets at the N. E. extremity, called Les Petites Coquil-les, alone not being included within the city limits. It has a low and level surface, and the greater part of it is swampy and liable to overflow from high water, with a general inclination from S. E. to N. W. The W. portion is protected from overflow by levees, and is tolerably well drained. The chief agricultural productions of the parish in 1870 were 14,357 bushels of Indian corn, 2,468 of Irish and 4,540 of sweet potatoes, 751 hogsheads of sugar, 17,910 gallons of molasses, and 825,896 of milk sold.
The value of land in farms was $859,012; of live stock on farms, $173,690; of farm productions, $614,128. (See New Orleans).
Orleans, an island of the province of Quebec, Canada, forming part of Montmorency co., in the St. Lawrence, a, few miles below the city of Quebec; area, 69 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 4,924. It is well wooded, has a fertile soil, and contains several villages and good farms.
Orleans (Fr. Orleans; anc. Genabum, afterward Aurelianum), a city of France, capital of the department of Loiret, on the right bank of the Loire, 68 m. S. by W. of Paris; pop. in 1872, 48,976. The ancient fortifications have been demolished, to make room for gardens and public promenades. The cathedral, begun in the 13th century, was partly destroyed by the Huguenots, and reconstructed in the 17th and 18th centuries. The churches of St. Aignan and St. Euverte, the old city hall, an edifice of the 15th century which is now appropriated to a museum of painting and sculpture, the old houses of Agnes Sorel and Francis I., and an equestrian statue of Joan of Arc, are objects of attention. Orleans has a historical museum, a museum of natural history, an academy of sciences, belles-lettres, and arts, and a public library of about 50,000 volumes. There are manufactures of hosiery and woollen and cotton blankets, numerous sugar refineries, breweries, and tanneries; and the town is an important railway centre. - Ancient Genabum was destroyed by Coesar, and, being rebuilt by Au-relian, took his name. Attila with his Huns appeared before its walls in 451; but the timely intervention of the Roman general Aetms rescued it from danger.
It was conquered by Clovis in 496, and under his successors became the capital of one of the Frankish kingdoms. It was pillaged by the Northmen in 856 and 865. Louis the Fat was crowned there in 1108, and a university was established in 1309. After the accession of the house of Valois it became the capital of a duchy, which was bestowed successively upon various princes of the royal family. It adhered faithfully to the French kings during their long wars with the English. In October, 1428, the latter, under Salisbury, laid siege to the city, whose inhabitants resisted heroically; it was finally rescued, April 29, 1429, by Joan of Arc. The states general convened there in 1560. The Calvin-ists in 1562 seized upon this stronghold, and it was besieged in 1563 by the Catholics under the duke of Guise, who was assassinated during the siege. In 1652, during the war of the Fronde, the duchess of Montpensier, daughter of Gaston of Orleans, held it against the king. In the Franco-German war of 1870-71 its neighborhood was the scene of protracted and hotly contested battles.
On Oct. 10 Gen. von der Tann, with the first Bavarian army corps and other troops, drove back the advance guard of the "army of the Loire" (Gen. Lamotte-rouge) from Artenay, and moved toward Orleans; on the 12th he defeated the main army and took possession of the city. By the beginning of November, however, the French army of the Loire had been heavily reenforced, and Gen. Aurelle de Paladines, during the first week of that month, advanced at the head of 150,000 men with the design of recapturing the place. Von der Tann, greatly outnumbered, preferred to receive the attack in the open country, and on Nov. 8 evacuated the town (leaving only a regiment of infantry) and took up a strong strategic position near Coul-miers, where a fierce battle began on the 9th. Yon der Tann held his ground till night, and then made an orderly retreat; the troops left in Orleans withdrew, and the French reŽntered it on the 10th. Aurelle failing to follow up his advantage, the Germans were allowed to reenforce their army undisturbed; and when later in the month Aurelle attempted to send a great part of his army toward Paris, he encountered a strong force (10th corps, of Frederick Charles's army), which he attacked near Beaume-la-Rolande, and was defeated and forced back to Neuville-aux-Bois near the city.
Here the 10th Prussian corps again defeated him on Dec. 3; and on the same evening all the other principal French positions around the city were successfully assailed. The attack was continued on the 4th, and by 9 at night the Germans had pressed forward to the city itself. An entrance was forced by the grand duke of Mecklenburg's division, and violent street fighting was going on, when the commander of the city surrendered to the grand duke, who occupied it at midnight (Dec. 4-5). Prince Frederick Charles made a formal entry on the 5th, and the Germans held Orleans to the end of the war.