A Central County Of Missouri, bounded N. by the Missouri river and N. W. by the Osage, and intersected by the Gasconade; area, about 850 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 10,793, of whom 320 were colored. It has an uneven surface, and near the streams a fertile soil. The Missouri Pacific railroad passes through it. The chief productions in 1870 were 222,-173 bushels of wheat, 426,563 of Indian corn, 97,320 of oats, 32,329 of potatoes, 100,018 lbs. of butter, 23,422 of wool, 119,617 of tobacco, and 2,324 tons of hay. There were 3,535 horses, 1,431 mules and asses, 3,962 milch cows, 5,726 other cattle, 12,144 sheep, and 22,532 swine. Capital, Linn.
An E. Central County Of Kansas, watered by the Osage river and its branches; area, 792 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 7,648. It is traversed by the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe railroad. The surface is somewhat diversified, and the soil productive. Timber grows along the margin of the streams, and coal abounds. The chief productions in 1870 were 21,201 bushels of wheat, 221,880 of Indian corn, 30,740 of oats, 25,518 of potatoes, 99,398 lbs. of butter, 30,900 of cheese, and 10.396 tons of hay. There were 2,782 horses, 3,339 milch cows, 6,838 other cattle, 2,875 sheep, and 14,033 swine. Capital, Burlingame.
Osages, a tribe of Indians of the Dakota family. Marquette in 1673 put them down on the Missouri under the name W'shage (Wasashe). They were allies of the Illinois, and before 1700 were driven down by enemies to the Arkansas. In 1712 a party of them aided the French at Detroit against the Foxes. In 1719 Dutisné visited them and set up the French arms, but the next year a Spanish expedition from New Mexico to join them in crushing out the Mis-souris was destroyed by the latter. The visit of some chiefs to France in 1726 confirmed their attachment. They operated with the French against the Chickasaws, and against the English in their final struggle. At the beginning of this century they were at war with the Sacs and Foxes, but peace was made in 1804. The Great Osages (Barharcha) were then chiefly at the forks of the Arkansas under Big Track, with a few on the Great Osage; the Little Osages (Oodzatau) had moved from the Missouri to the Great Osage. They were estimated in all at 6,300. They ceded some of their lands by a treaty made Nov. 10, 1808, with Papuisea, grand chief of the Big Osages, Nichu Malli of the Little, the Osages of the Arkansas under Clermont and Big Tract consenting.
Government did not immediately carry out this treaty, and the Osages declared that it had been signed without authority, but it was too late. They had been great thieves and plunderers before, and now became worse. They were constantly at war with neighboring tribes, and especially with the Cherokees, who in 1817 killed Clermont and destroyed his town. A series of treaties ceding lands followed: Sept. 12, 1815; Sept. 25, 1818; Aug. 31, 1822; June 2, and Aug. 10, 1825. They comprised at this time the Great Osages of the Osage and of the Neosho, and the Little Osages and the Chanees of the Arkansas. A mission and school of the American board were established about this time, but were abandoned in 1845. They were constantly warring with other tribes, plundering, and showing no inclination to agriculture. A visit of some to France revived the old French influence, and at their request the Jesuits began a mission in 1846. A treaty in 1839 ceded lands and led to increased annuities, but in a few years the settlement of Kansas and the consequent troubles almost drove them from their reservation, while epidemic diseases swept away many. At the beginning of the civil war about 1,000 went south; treaties in September, 1865, and May, 1868, prepared for the removal of the whole.
In 1870 the tribe, reduced to 3,150, accepted an act conveying their lands in trust to the United States, and providing for their removal to Indian territory. The government had utterly failed to protect them, and their horses, cattle, and houses had been taken from them. Their new reservation was between Kansas and the Creek country, west of lon. 96°. Here they were placed under the society of Friends. Some progress in agriculture is said to have been made, 2,000 acres being planted. A school was established on the reservation, and 33 pupils were maintained at the Osage mission school in Kansas. The tribe received interest on $300,000, and the interest of $110,000 is applied to education. Some educational works have been issued in the language, but there is no grammar or dictionary.