Oshkosh, a city and the capital of Winnebago co., Wisconsin, on the W. shore of Lake Winnebago, at the mouth of the Upper Fox river, and on the Chicago and Northwestern and the Oshkosh and Mississippi railroads, about 80 m. N. E. of Madison, and 80 m. N. N. W. of Milwaukee; pop. in 1860, 6,086; in 1870, 12,663; in 1875, estimated by local authorities at more than 16,000. It extends along both banks of the river, here spanned by two railroad and two ordinary bridges, for nearly 3 m. from Lake Winnebago to Lake ButtesdesMorts, and covers an area of about 8 sq. m., about half of which is closely built upon. The river is here about 600 ft. wide, forming a capacious harbor. The surrounding country is fertile, and the Wolf river, which falls into the Fox 12 m. above the city, affords communication with the rich lumber region to the north. The city is lighted with gas. The principal business blocks are substantially built of brick, and many of the residences are surrounded with handsome grounds. The main business street is paved, and the other principal streets are gravelled and bordered with shade trees, affording fine drives.

The chief public buildings are the court house; the northern state insane asylum, with a frontage of 800 ft., costing more than $600,000; the high school building, erected at a cost of more than $60,000; and the state normal school building. The building and grounds of the stock growers' association, where the northern state fairs are held, are worthy of mention. The trade of Oshkosh is important, the sales of merchandise amounting to about $4,000,000 a year. Lines of steamers in the season of navigation ply to New London on the Wolf river, to Berlin on the Upper Fox, and to Green Bay; and sailing vessels transport lumber, building stone, sand, and brick to and from the E. shore of Lake Winnebago. The city is largely engaged in manufacturing, the chief establishments being 24 saw mills, 15 shingle mills, 3 founderies and machine shops (producing steam engines, circular mills, and other iron work), 8 planing mills, 7 sash and door factories, 3 wood-turning establishments, 2 match factories, 2 grist mills, 2 manufactories of furniture, 2 of agricultural implements, 2 of steam boilers, 1 of extension tables, 1 of ornamental fence, 1 of boots and shoes, 1 of soap and candles, 1 of trunks, several of carriages, 1 of barrels, 2 ship yards, 6 breweries, 2 tanneries, lime works, etc.

The annual value of the manufactures is about $4,000,000. There are two national banks and a savings bank. Oshkosh is divided into six wards, and is governed by a mayor and a board of three aldermen from each ward. It has a small police force and a fire department. Sessions of the United States courts for the eastern district of Wisconsin are held here once a year. There are four leading hotels, an opera house, a business college, several private schools, a daily and four weekly (one German) newspapers, two monthly periodicals, and a library association possessing about 1,500 volumes. Besides the high school building there are nine public school buildings, with graded schools, attended by about 2,300 pupils. The churches, 19 in number besides two missions, are as follows:

2 Baptist, 1 Congregational, 2 Episcopal, 1 Evangelical Reformed, 2 Lutheran, 1 Lutheran Evangelical, 3 Methodist Episcopal, 1 Methodist Calvinistic, 2 Presbyterian, 3 Roman Catholic, and 1 Universalis. - Trading posts were established by the French Canadians on the site of Oshkosh soon after 1820, but the permanent settlement of the city dates from 183(5. It was incorporated in 1853. Four destructive fires have swept over it: in May, 1859; May, 1866;.July, 1874; and April, 1875.