Otiio I. (Otto Friedrich Ludwig), king of Greece, second son of Louis L, king of Bavaria, born in Salzburg, June 1, 1815, died in Bamberg, July 26, 1807. In his 17th year he was invited by the Greeks, who had then recently achieved their independence, to till their throne; and the proposition being approved by Great Britain, France, and Russia, in a treaty concluded in London in May, 1832, and ratified soon after by the king of Bavaria, the young prince accepted the offer, and on Feb. 6, 1833, entered Nauplia, accompanied by several officers of state who were to have the control of public affairs until he attained the age of 20. In June, 1835, he assumed the reins of government, and in the succeeding year was married in Germany to the princess Amalie of Oldenburg. The Bavarian ministers to whom he committed the management of the kingdom soon became unpopular, and as early as 1830 the people began to manifest their discontent by open rebellion. On the day of his arrival with his consort at the Piaeus, Feb. 14, 1837, he signed a decree removing some of the most obnoxious foreigners from office, and substituting the Greek language for the German in official documents.
In other respects the government continued to be despotic; and in September, 1843, the Greeks surrounded his palace, and compelled him to form a cabinet in which his native subjects should be properly represented, and to call a national assembly to frame a constitution. The latter instrument was promulgated in the ensuing March, the Bavarian ministers were sent home, and an auspicious era seemed about to dawn upon Greece. The reactionary tendencies of the king and his advisers soon interfered with these prospects; attempts were made to abridge the concessions granted, which the people resisted; ministry after ministry essayed without success to carry on the government. On the breaking out of the eastern war in 1853 the Greeks so strongly manifested their hostility to the Porte that an allied army of English and French was stationed at the Piraeus, and a new ministry, distasteful to the king and queen, who were also warmly attached to the Russian policy, was forced into office. The people, perceiving in this an attempt to infringe the royal prerogative and insult the national dignity, were partially reconciled to their sovereign, and the unpopular ministers were obliged to retire. On the conclusion of the war the popular enmity toward the king again broke out.
After several unsuccessful insurrections, the people finally organized a provisional government in Athens, which declared the throne vacant; and on Oct. 27, 1802, Otho returned to Bavaria.