Ottawa, a city and port of entry of the province of Ontario, capital of Carleton co. and of the Dominion of Canada, on the south bank of Ottawa river, at the mouth of the Rideau, 97 m. above the St. Lawrence, and 220 m. E. N. E. of Toronto; lat. 45° 20' N., lon. 75° 42' W.; pop. in 1861, 14,669; in 1871, 21,545. It is divided into the upper and lower town by the Rideau canal, which connects it with Kingston at the head of the St. Laurence. The canal is here crossed by two bridges, one of stone and one of stone and iron, and has eight massive locks. The scenery in the vicinity of the city is picturesque and grand. At the W. extremity are the Chaudière fails, 40 ft. high, just below which the Ottawa is spanned by a suspension bridge; and at the N. E. end two other falls. 40 ft. high, over which the Rideau flows to join the Ottawa. The streets are wide and regular, and there are many handsome buildings of stone. The government buildings are the chief feature of the city. They form three sides of a quadrangle on an eminence known as Barrack hill, 150 ft. above the Ottawa, and cost nearly $4,000,000. The S. side is formed by the parliament building, which is 472 ft. long and 572 ft. deep from the front of the main tower to the rear of the library, the body of the building being 40 ft. high and the central tower 180 ft.
The departmental buildings run X. from this, facing inward to the square, the eastern block being 318 ft. long by 253 deep, and the western 211 ft. long by 277 deep. The buildings are constructed in the Italian Gothic style, of cream-colored sandstone. The arches of the doors and windows are of red Potsdam sandstone, the external ornamental work of Ohio sandstone, and the columns and arches of the legislative chambers of marble. The roofs are covered with green and purple slates, and the pinnacles are ornamented with iron. The legislative chambers are capacious and richly furnished, and have stained glass windows. The corner stone was laid by the prince of Wales in 1860. Excellent water works have lately been completed, and a thorough system of drainage is in progress. - Ottawa is connected by horse cars with New Edinburgh, the residence of the governor general, and with Hull on the opposite bank of the Ottawa river. It has railway communica-tion with the principal points of the province by means of the St. Lawrence and Ottawa and the Canada Central lines. Regular lines of steamers ply in summer to Montreal, to various points on the upper Ottawa, and to Kingston through the Rideau canal. The city is the en-trepot of the lumber trade of the Ottawa and its tributaries.
The imports for the year ending June 30, 1874, amounted to $1,495,169; exports, $1,683,148. The entrances and clearances from and to the United States were each 1,174, with an aggregate tonnage of 95,722. There are several flouring mills, a number of large saw mills, manufactories of iron castings, mill machinery, agricultural implements, brooms, bricks, leather, wooden ware, etc, and seven branch banks. The city is governed by a mayor and board of aldermen, has a police force and fire department, and is lighted with gas. It contains a Roman Catholic and a Protestant hospital, three orphan asylums, a Magdalen asylum, a provincial normal school, a high school, good public schools with an average attendance of more than 2,000, a Catholic college and ecclesiastical seminary, six daily (one French) and five weekly (one French) newspapers, and 17 churches, viz.: Baptist, 1; Catholic Apostolic (Irvingite), 1; Congregational, 1; Episcopal, 3; Episcopal Methodist, 2; Presbyterian, 3; Roman Catholic, 4; Wesleyan Methodist, 2. - Ottawa was founded in 1827 by Col. By, a British officer, from whom it received the name of Bytown. It was incorporated as a city under its present name in 1854, and was selected as the seat of the Canadian government in 1858.
The Parliament House.
Ottawas, a tribe of American Indians belonging to the Algonquin family, and residing when first known to the early French explorers on the Manitoulin islands and the N. W. shore of the Michigan peninsula, comprising the Sinagos, Kiskakons, and Keinouches. They believed in Michabou, the "great hare," a mythical personage, who formed the earth, and developed men from animals; in Mirabi-chi, god of the waters; and in Missabizi, "the great tiger." After the overthrow of the Hu-rons in 1649, the Ottawas of Manitoulin, Saginaw, and Thunder bay fled from the Iroquois to the islands at the mouth of Green bay, and thence beyond the Mississippi to the country of the Sioux. Provoking these to war, they fell back to Chegoimegon before 1660 (where the Jesuits began a mission), and afterward to Mackinaw. Here they became involved with the Iroquois, and though great cowards joined the French in many of their operations. After the settlement of Detroit a part of the Ottawas settled near it. The band remaining at Mackinaw soon passed over to Arbre Croche, where the mission still subsists.
The Cttawas took part in the last war of the French for Canada, and at the close Pontiac, chief of the Detroit Ottawas, did not yield, but organized a vast Indian conspiracy for the destruction of the English. (See Pontiac.) The Ottawas of Arbre Croche did not join him. The tribe at this time numbered in all about 1,500. During the revolution they were under English influence. They joined in the treaties made by several tribes at Fort Mcintosh in 1785, and Fort Harmar in T7S9, but took up arms with the Miamis soon after, making peace finally at Greenville, Aug. 3, 1795. One band about this time settled on the Miami. A long series of treaties followed, sometimes by the Ottawas alone, but more frequently in connection with other tribes, ceding lands to the United States, and reserving to the band of Ottawas who had long been associated with the Ojibways and Pottawattamies a tract on the Miami 34 m. square. By the treaty of 1833 these confederated tribes ceded their lands around Lake Michigan to the United States, and agreed to take lands south of the Missouri river, where they soon ceased to be a distinct band.
A band of Ottawas at Maumee, Ohio, on Aug. 31, 1836, ceded 49,000 acres in that state, and 200 removed to 34,000 acres on the Osage, south of the Shawnees. About 230 remained, some of whom followed the first band, and others scattered. The emigrant band prospered, had a Baptist mission, and soon possessed good farms and comfortable log houses. The political troubles in Kansas led to depredations on them, but steps were taken to make them citizens. By treaty of July 3, 1862, these Ottawas, numbering 207, were to be located on individual tracts, 160 acres to a family, 20,000 acres to be reserved for schools, and the rest to be sold. Under this and a subsequent act they actually became citizensin 1867, and began an ill advised college which absorbed much of their property. Their position was so uncomfortable that they asked and obtained a reservation of 24,960 acres in the Indian territory north of the Shawnees, on Blanchard's fork and Roche de Boeuf, to which they emigrated in 1870, and where they are now (1875) reduced to 142. The Ottawas in Michigan on March 28, 1836, ceded all their lands except reservations, and the treaty of 1855 gave them the option of taking up lands in severalty on these reservations.
They are at Arbre Croche, Cross village, Grand river, Gull prairie, etc, and on the shore of Lake Superior, alternating with the Ojibways, the two nations numbering nearly 5,000. In Canada there are Ottawas on Walpole, Christian, and Manitoulin islands, mingled with other Indians, numbering probably 1,000 more. They are all self-supporting, with missions of Catholic and various Protestant denominations.