Oxford, a S. W. county of Maine, bordering on New Hampshire, watered by the Androscoggin, Saco, and other rivers; area, about 1,700 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 33,488. Its surface is in some parts broken and mountainous, but the soil is generally fertile. There are several large lakes, of which Molechunkemunk, Par-machena, and many smaller ones are wholly within the county, and Umbagog and Moose-lucmaguntic partly. It is traversed by the Grand Trunk and the Portland and Oxford Central railroads. The chief productions in 1870 were 32,083 bushels of wheat, 181,319 of Indian corn, 201,746 of oats, 15,583 of buckwheat, 701,615 of potatoes, 923,640 lbs. of butter, 207,048 of cheese, 142,444 of wool, 241,032 of hops, 66,134 of maple sugar, and 90,679 tons of hay. There were 6,001 horses, 13,105 milch cows, 7,263 working oxen, 17,531 other cattle, 35,220 sheep, and 3,333 swine; 17 manufactories of carriages and wagons, 1 of emery wheels, 1 of gunpowder, 14 of tanned and 10 of curried leather, 4 of machinery, 6 of starch, 1 of wood pulp, 6 of woollen goods, 6 flour mills, and 23 saw mills.
Oxford, a S. W. county of Ontario, Canada, watered by the Thames and other streams; area, 759 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 48,237, of whom 18,796 wore of English, 12,874 of Scotch, 8.391 of Irish, and 6,182 of German origin or descent. It is traversed by the Great Western and Canada Southern railroads. Capital, "Woodstock.
Oxford (Lat. Oxoniwn), a city of England, capital of Oxfordshire, situated on a gentle hill between the Cherwell and Isis or upper Thames, which here unite, 52 m. W. N. W. of London; pop. in 1871, 31,554. Though irregularly built, with narrow, crooked streets and lanes and few good thoroughfares, its appearance from a distance is picturesque and imposing. The High street is less than two thirds of a mile long and of varying width, nowhere exceeding 85 ft.; but it is interesting for its architectural contrasts, the noble collegiate edifices alternating with quaint old dwelling houses and modern shops. Nearly all the avenues are clean and well paved and lighted, and improvements are constantly going on. The city has an abundant supply of good water. The rivers are crossed by several bridges. The principal churches are the cathedral, which is the chapel of Christ Church college; St. Mary's, which serves as the university church, and has a fine spire; St. Martin's, the "city church," with a clock tower and illuminated dial fronting the High street; St. Peter's in the East, a venerable Norman edifice lately restored; St. Mary Magdalene's, St. Giles's, St. Michael's, St. Aldate's, and All Saints'. In 1872 there were 42 places of worship, of which 22 belonged to the church of England, 5 to the Baptists, 3 to the Wesleyan Methodists, and 2 to the Congregationalists. The city has a free reading room and library, public baths, workhouses, a savings bank, a dispensary, the Radcliffe infirmary, a pauper lunatic asylum, a music hall, a town hall, a council chamber with an interesting collection of portraits, and a county hall and law courts.
There are no manufactures, and, with the exception of a trade in the grain produced in the neighborhood, the city depends for support almost entirely upon the university. It has communication with other parts of the kingdom by river, canal, and railway. It is governed by 10 aldermen and 30 councillors, one of whom is mayor; but in certain matters respecting the night police, markets, etc, the university authorities have coordinate jurisdiction. The date of its foundation is unknown. It is mentioned as a seat of learning by Pope Martin II. (about 882). Tradition says it was a favorite residence of Alfred the Great, and in modern history it is noted for the execution of Ridley, Latimer, and Cranmer, and for the severity with which it was treated by the parliamentarians in the civil war, during which it was the headquarters of Charles I., was repeatedly besieged, and finally captured by Fairfax (June, 1646). In 1873 it was selected as a military centre, the government having purchased 20 acres of land at Ballingdon, near Oxford, as the site for a depot.