I. A N. Province Of Spain

A N. Province Of Spain, in Old Castile, bordering on Santander, Burgos, Valladolid, and Leon; area, 3,125 sq. m.; pop. in 1870,184,668. It is watered'by the Carrion, Cueza, Pisuerga, and several other rivers, and the canal of Castile passes through it. A portion of the X. part is mountainous; the remainder is level and almost totally devoid of trees. Coal, chalk, gypsum, saltpetre, and copper ore are found. The climate is cold but healthy, and the soil is fertile; wine, grain, vegetables, and fruits are produced. Blankets and other woollen goods are manufactured. Among the principal towns are Cervera, Sal-daHa, and Carrion.

II. A City (Anc. Pallan-Tia)

A City (Anc. Pallan-Tia), capital of the province, on the left bank of the river Carrion, 117 m. N. X. W. of Madrid; pop. about 13,000. The river is crossed by several fine bridges, and the town is protected by a strong wall. It contains a cathedral, begun in the 14th century and finished in the 17th, several churches and convents, an episcopal palace, a former royal palace, several charitable institutions, including a foundling hospital, an academy and numerous schools, a picture gallery, and a library. About one third of the population are employed in woollen manufactures. The town was a place of importance in the time of the Romans. In honor of the bravery displayed by the women of Palencia, in their successful defence of the city when besieged by the Black Prince, they were permitted by John I. to wear a golden band upon their heads. It was occupied by the French in 1808, and by the English in 1812.