Pamplona, Or Pampeluna (Anc. Pompelon), a fortified city of Spain, capital of the province of Navarre, on the left bank of the Arga, 197 m. N. E. of Madrid; pop. about 23,000. It stands in a plain flanked on three sides by the Pyrenees, is entered by six gates, and has 29 streets. The cathedral was founded in 1100, and rebuilt three centuries later by Charles III. of Navarre. The university was founded in 1608. The best public library is that attached to the cathedral. "Water is conveyed from the mountains of Subiza, 12 m. distant, by a superb aqueduct, one portion of which rests on 97 arches, each of 35 ft. span and 65 ft. high. The citadel, separated from the town by a vast esplanade, occupies a commanding site. Cloth, leather, wax, and earthenware are manufactured, and there is much trade in flour and wool.-Pamplona was anciently the chief town of the Vascones in Hispania Tarraconen-sis. The Goths under Euric wrested it from the Romans in 466, and the Franks captured it in 542. Charlemagne seized it in 778; and after falling into the hands of the Saracens under Al-Hakim, it was recaptured by the Franks in 806, and became the capital of Navarre about the middle of the century. It has since been many times besieged and captured.
The Car-lists blockaded it Sept. 1, 1874, half the population was driven away, and the city now (1875) presents a most desolate appearance.