Papal States, Or States Of The Chnrcb, the name formerly given to a territory of central Italy subject to the pope. In 1859, before the annexation of most of the territory to the dominions of Victor Emanuel, it extended from lat. 41° 15' to 45° K, and from Ion. 11° 25' to 13° 55' E., and was bounded N". by Venetia, E. by the Adriatic, S. and S. E. by the former kingdom of Naples, S. W. by the Mediterranean, and W. and N". W. by Tuscany and Modena. It was 260 m. long from the mouth of the Po to Monte Circello, and 136 m. broad from An-cona to Civita Vecchia; area, about 16,000 sq. m.; pop. 3,000,000. It was divided into a comarca, including Rome and the Agro Romano, governed by a cardinal president, six legations governed each by a cardinal legate, and 13 delegations placed under inferior prelates. Of these the legations of Ferrara, Bologna, Ravenna, and Forli constituted the district of Romagna; Spoleto and Perugia formed that of Umbria; while Pesaro, Urbino, Anco-na, Macerata, Fermo, and Ascoli were called the Marches (It. marca, an old term denoting a frontier territory governed by a marquis). The principal cities were Rome, Bologna, Ancona, Ferrara, Ravenna, Sinigaglia, Faenza, Jesi, Perugia, Benevento, Pesaro, Macerata, Rimini, Fano, Forli, and Fermo. In 1859 the Romagna detached itself from the papal rule, and in 1860 the Marches and tJmbria were occupied by the Sardinians, and the Papal States were thus reduced to the divisions of Rome, Viterbo, Civita Vecchia, Velletri, and Frosinone (area, about 4,500 sq. m.; pop. 700,000). This remnant was annexed to the kingdom of Italy in 1870. For the description of the coast lines on the Mediterranean and Adriatic as well as of the physical aspect and geological features of the country, see Italy. - The temporal sovereignty of the pope grew up imperceptibly out of his spiritual authority.

About the time of Constantine some landed possessions seem to have been attached to the see. of Rome. By the time of Leo the Iconoclast (718-'41) and Gregory II. the power of the popes had acquired importance. " Their popular election," says Gibbon, " endeared them to the Romans; the public and private indigence was relieved by their ample revenue; and the weakness or neglect of the emperors compelled them to consult, both in peace and war, the temporal safety of the city." The invasion of the Lombards, who, after capturing Ravenna, the seat of the exarch or imperial vicere-gent, finally laid siege to Rome itself in 741, and the neglect of the Byzantine emperors to take any measures for the protection of their Italian subjects, compelled the pope to look elsewhere for help. Gregory III. accordingly sent an embassy to Charles Martel, offering him in the name of the Roman senate and people the dignity of patrician, and imploring his assistance. Charles was preparing to cross the Alps with an army when he died, and the pope died in the same year; but Gregory's successor Zachary kept back the invaders, reestablished the exarch, and obtained the restoration of the captured cities.

On his death the Lombards made a fresh invasion, the exarchate was finally overthrown, Rome was again attacked, and Pope Stephen III. called in the assistance of Pepin. The Frankish ruler marched into Italy, defeated the Lombard king Astolphus, and obliged him to give up to the pope the greater part of the exarchate of Ravenna, comprising the Pentapolis (or five cities of Rimini, Pesaro, Fano, Sinigaglia, and Ancona), and 17 other towns situated chiefly on the Adriatic. From this time the popes in all their proceedings assumed the style of temporal sovereigns. Their authority, however, was little more than nominal until Charlemagne, having completed his father's work by the total destruction of the Lombard monarchy in 774, secured to the Roman pontiffs the exarchate of Ravenna, the island of Corsica, the provinces of Parma, Mantua, Venice, and Istria, and the duchies of Spoleto and Benevento. But with this new order of things arose a new source of dispute. Charlemagne was crowned by Pope Leo III. in 800 " emperor of the Romans," and for many years his successors continued to assert an imperial authority over Italy, which was retained in name by the German emperors down to the beginning of the 19th century.

In the mean time, under cover of papal grants of territory to lay barons, several powerful families had grown up in Rome and other dominions of the church, who acted as politically independent. Thus, between the pretensions of suzerainty of the emperors, the turbulence of factions, and the insubordination of petty princes, the popes of the middle ages were incessantly involved in quarrels. Many of them were exiled, imprisoned, or put to death. The party for the time dominant raised its own favorite to the pontificate, and not un-frequently there were two or more claimants for the sacerdotal crown. Gregory VII. (Hil-debrand), who reigned from 1073 to 1085, made the liberation of the church from temporal oppression the chief aim of his pontificate; but his famous struggle with Henry IV. resulted in no accession of independence to the Roman states, though during his time the countess Matilda of Tuscany, Parma, Modena, and Mantua granted all her territories to the pope, renewing the grant afterward to Paschal II. The emperors refused to sanction the grant, inasmuch as Matilda, being a vassal of the empire, could not alienate her rights of sovereignty. Innocent III. was the first pope who made his states really independent.

After the death of Henry VI., being appointed guardian of that monarch's infant son Frederick II., he sent his legates to many of the principal cities and towns, and the inhabitants joyfully threw open their gates, took the oaths of allegiance, and received full guarantees of their municipal rights. Otho IV. afterward ceded to him the disputed territory of the countess Matilda, but having seized several of the pope's cities he was excommunicated in 1210 and deposed. The enemies whom Innocent had now chiefly to fear were his own subjects. The feudal rights of the nobles and the municipal rights of the cities left him little direct authority; and in Rome especially his power was closely circumscribed. The senate was abolished about this time by the Romans themselves, and in its place a single officer was elected with the title of senator, and with control of the militia and judiciary. Innocent contrived to have an oath imposed upon this functionary to defend the rights of the Roman pontiff, and took into his own hands the appointment of the prefect. But in other parts of Italy the imperial power was little if at all weakened.

Bologna, Perugia, and Ancona were virtually republics; and although Pope Nicholas III. in 1278 obtained from Rudolph of Hapsburg a recognition of the papal sovereignty over a certain specified territory, and a renunciation of all rights within the same which might still pertain to the imperial crown, the popes did not thereby acquire any real authority. In 1309 the papal residence was removed to Avignon, and the Roman states were torn by contend-, ing factions, of which the Guelphs were supported by the popes and the Ghibellines by the emperors. In the midst of these disorders Cola di Rienzi succeeded in establishing himself at Rome (1347), and with the title of tribune of the people enforced the laws, curbed the license of the barons, and restored peace and prosperity to the commonwealth. But his reign was short. Driven from Rome by the citizens, he languished several years in prison at Avignon, until the disorders in Italy became so violent that Pope Innocent VI. sent him back with the title of senator in 1354, in company with the legate Cardinal Gil Albornoz. Rienzi was received in triumph at Rome, but was killed in a popular insurrection at the end of four months.

Albornoz gained several victories in the field, and reduced the Romagna, the Marches, and the Oampagna to obedience; but his successes were only temporary. The confusion was increased soon after by a series of antipopes, who for many years divided with the legitimate pontiffs the obedience of the Christian world, appointed their own cardinals, and were sometimes in possession of Rome, whither the throne was carried back by Gregory XI. in 1377. The schism was healed in 1417 by the council of Constance, which awarded the tiara to Martin V., and the Roman states began to enjoy a more regular form of government. But Eugenius IV. (1431-'47) was driven from his capital by a popular insurrection, and a short-lived republic was instituted, which his minister Vitelleschi suppressed with great cruelty. Alexander VI. (1492-1503) subdued the turbulent nobles of the Marches; and a still further advance toward the consolidation of the state was made by the warrior pontiff Julius II. (1503-13), who reduced the barons to obedience, joined the league of Cambrai with France, Austria, and Aragon against the Venetians, and, having secured his objects, then united with Venice to expel the French. At the time of his death the great sources of disturbance in central Italy were the wars of the French and Spaniards in the N. and S. extremities of the peninsula.

His successor Leo X. (1513-21) not only restored peace, but made some additions to his territory; and from this time the States of the Church acquired a more compact and homogeneous character. Clement VII. (1523-'34) formed a league with Venice, France, and England against the emperor Charles V., which entailed numerous misfortunes upon him. Rome in 1527 was stormed and pillaged by the imperial troops under the constable de Bourbon, and the pope was seven months a prisoner. Under Clement XL (1700-'21) the States of the Church were invaded by the Austrian archduke Charles, and Sicily, Sardinia, Parma, and Pia-cenza, ancient nominal fiefs of the holy see, were transferred to other hands. Clement XIII. (1758-'69) was deprived of Avignon, Benevento, and other places, and involved in contests with nearly every state in Europe on account of his protection of the Jesuits; but Clement XIV. (1769-74), by suppressing the obnoxious order, recovered what his predecessor had lost. The liberality and virtues of Pius VI. (1775-'99) were no safeguard against the violence of revolutionary France; and after Bonaparte had wrested from him Bologna, Ferrara, and Ravenna, and added them to the Cisalpine republic, he was dethroned in February, 1798, and carried captive to France, where he died.

A republic was proclaimed at Rome by the French general Ber-thier, but it came to an end in 1799. In March, 1800, Pius VII. was elected at Venice, Rome being then in a state of anarchy; and in July, 1801, after the peace of Luneville, he made a concordat with Bonaparte. The refusal of Pius VII. to expel from his dominions the subjects of all those powers who were at war with France led to a fresh invasion;- in February, 1808, Bonaparte's troops took possession of Rome; in April, Ancona, Macerata, Fermo, and Urbino were united to the "kingdom of Italy;" in May, 1809, Napoleon declared the remainder of the Roman states annexed to the French empire; and soon afterward the pope was carried prisoner to France, and did not return till 1814. The congress of Vienna restored to him all the territories of the church. The pontificates of Leo XII. (1823-'9) and Pius VIII. (1829-31) were comparatively tranquil. In February, 1831, soon after the accession of Gregory XVI., an insurrection broke out in Bologna and other places, but by the assistance of Austrian troops it was speedily suppressed. Pius IX. was elected June 16, 1846, and at once inaugurated a series of reforms and concessions.

The revolution which broke out in France and northern Italy in 1848 produced a powerful effect at Rome. The pope in March issued a proclamation promising a constitution on a liberal basis, with deliberative chambers, and at the same time formed a new cabinet composed of ten laymen and only three ecclesiastics. He could not avoid taking part with Charles Albert in hostilities against Austria; and in September it became necessary to construct a new ministry. On Nov. 15, the day appointed for the opening of the chambers, the prime minister Rossi was assassinated, and the next day the populace, assisted by the civic guard, forced their way into the Quirinal and compelled the pope to accept a radical ministry. On the 24th he escaped in disguise to Gaeta, and after some ineffectual negotiating to induce him to return, the chambers at Rome appointed a triumvirate; a constituent assembly was called, which on Feb. 9, 1849, dethroned the pope and proclaimed a republic. The Roman states now entered heartily into the Italian war of independence.

The government was nominally administered by Mazzini, Armellini, and Safii, but the power was really shared between Mazzini, Garibaldi, and Avezzana. The French government resolved upon restoring Pius IX., and in April an army under Gen. Oudinot landed at Civita Vecchia, and by July 1 the French were complete masters of the city; but the pontiff did not return to his capital until April, 1850. Supported by the French army of occupation and by the Austrians who held the Romagna, the government maintained tranquillity till 1859, when the withdrawal of the Austrian garrison from Bologna, June 12, subsequent to the defeat of the Austrians at Magenta, was the signal for a peaceful revolt of the whole Romagna, and the organization of a provisional government, which offered the dictatorship to the king of Sardinia, who in March, 1860, formally declared them annexed to the Sardinian monarchy in accordance with a vote of the inhabitants. They now constitute, with Parma and Modena, the division Emilia, so called from the ancient Via iEmilia, which traversed them.

The pope enlisted a considerable force of foreign troops, and offered the command of his army to the French general Lamoriciere, who accepted the post in April. Early in September, following close upon the successes of Garibaldi in Sicily and Naples, revolt broke out in Umbria and the Marches, and the insurgents on the 11th placed themselves under the protection of Victor Emanuel. Accordingly a Sardinian force under Gen. Fanti took possession of Perugia and Spoleto, while Cialdini with 50,000 men made himself master of Pesaro and Urbino, and defeated Lamoriciere at Castel Fi-dardo (Sept. 18). After a short siege Ancona capitulated Sept. 29, Lamoriciere and the troops then with him becoming prisoners of war. In November a vote of the population of the revolted provinces was taken on the subject of annexation to Sardinia, and resulted in an overwhelming majority in favor of that measure. The proclamation of Victor Emanuel as king of Italy by the parliament of Turin, Feb. 26, 1861, was followed on March 27 by a resolution affirmative of Cavour's declaration that it was essential to Italian unity that Rome should become the capital of Italy. The pontifical government vainly protested in April against the title of king of Italy assumed by Victor Emanuel; he was recognized as such by the great powers, and it now became the fixed purpose of the Italian patriots to obtain the withdrawal of the French troops from Rome and to annex that city and its territory to the new kingdom.

A proclamation was issued by Garibaldi in August, 1862, and an expedition which he made to Calabria toward the end of that month to organize a general rising against the French in Rome and the temporal sovereignty of the pope, was defeated by the Italian government. The king and his ministers from that moment entered into more active negotiations with France for the withdrawal of the French flag from Italian territory, while the pope by allocutions and encyclicals appealed to the conservative sense of Christendom. On Sept. 15, 1864, a treaty was concluded with Napoleon III., stipulating for the evacuation of Rome by the French within two years. Florence became the seat of the Italian government in May, 1865. A special envoy sent by the king to the pope in April, and again in June, failed to effect either a reconciliation or a compromise; the pope feeling bound to fulfil the oath made at his coronation of preserving his temporalities in their entirety, and securing thereby the independence of his spiritual government. The liberation of Venetia by the war against Austria, in alliance with Prussia (June and July), now almost completed the unity of Italy. On Oct. 2,9 the pope issued a solemn protest against the aggressions of the Italian government.

The French army began to leave the Roman territory on Dec. 2, a small garrison being left at Rome and Civita Vecchia till such time as the holy see could recruit a sufficient volunteer force of Italians and foreigners to hold the few remaining fortresses. The advance of Garibaldi in October, 1867, was counteracted by the Italian ministry, and a French contingent was sent to Rome for the defence of the papal territory. But the defeat of Garibaldi at Men-tana on Nov. 3 only increased the agitation and fury against the foreigners, the flame being fanned by the presence and publications of Mazzini. At length, after the withdrawal of the last French soldier, Aug. 21, 1870, in consequence of the French reverses in the German war, Victor Emanuel wrote to Pius IX. declaring that the occupation of Rome by Italian troops had become an imperative necessity. This event took place on Sept. 20, the pontifical garrison making but a brief resistance. The great powers were notified of it on Oct. 18; in December the Italian chambers at Florence declared Rome the capital of Italy, and on May 13, 1871, passed a law known as "the bill of the papal guarantees." By this law the pope is permitted to enjoy the rank of a sovereign, and occupy the palace and basilica of the Vatican, with a yearly revenue from the Italian treasury of $625,000. All church property in Rome and its immediate territory became the property of the nation in 1873, and a large portion of the numerous establishments have since been sold to help pay the heavy public debt.

This complete change was vigorously resisted by Pius IX. Refusing to accept any portion of the revenue assigned to him, he continues to depend for his support and that of his court on gifts collected for him among Roman Catholics everywhere. With the exception of a mutual understanding between the Vatican and the royal court established in the Quirinal, for the appointment of bishops to the vacant sees in Italy, no direct intercourse had taken place between the pope and the Italian government up to April, 1875. - See Calindri, Saggio geogrqfico, statistico e storico dello Stato Pontificio (Perugia, 1829); Sugen-heim, GescMchte der Entstehung und Ausbil-dung des KircTienstaats (Leipsic, 1855); and Cardinal Manning, "Temporal Power of the Pope " (London, 1874).