Paris, the capital of France, and the second city in Europe in point of population, on both banks of the Seine and on two islands in that river, 111 m. from its mouth; lat. of the observatory, 48° 50' 11" K, Ion. 2° 20' 22 1/2-" E.; height of the city above the sea, 190 ft.; area enclosed within the fortifications, 18,315 acres, or a little more than 28 1/2 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 1,851,792. With its suburbs it forms a special department, that of the Seine, having an area of 184 sq. m., and a population in 1872 of 2,220,060. The area of the city proper at different dates is shown in the following table:

PERIODS.

Acres.

Sq. m.

Under Julius Caesar........

...B.C.

56

37

...

" Philip Augustus .........

...A.D.

1211

625

....

" Charles VI..........

...".

1383 1581

1,084 1.193

1.69

" Henry III..........

..".

1.86

" Louis XIII.........

..".

1034

1,403

2.19

" Louis XIV.........

..".

1686

2,728

426

" Louis XVI.........

..".

1784

8,708

13.60

" Napoleon III...

..".

1860

18,315

28 61

The following table shows the increase of population of the city during the past 80 years, the figures for the first two dates being from the most trustworthy estimates, the others from official censuses:

YEARS.

Population.

Pop. to the acre.

1798......

640,000

73

1802......

672,000

77

1806......

580,609

66

1817......

713,966

82

1827....

890,431

102

YEARS.

Population.

Pop. to the acre.

1836.....

909,126

104

1846.....

945,721

108

1856.....

1,174,346

186

1866.....

1.825.274

100

1872

1,851,792

101

The population in 1872 was divided according to nationality as follows:

NATIONALITY.

Males.

Females.

Total.

French.

Born in the department of the seine...

307,812

334,906

642,718

Born in other p'ts of France

52T,02S

504,842

1,031,865

Naturalized foreigners.....

2,196

1,836

4,082

Alsatian and Lorrainian immigrates.....

19,929

17,047

36,976

Persons from Alsace-Lorraine who are German citizen....

14.696

16,919

81,615

English, Scotch, and Irish....

2,901

4,5S9

7,490

Americans (North and South

America)....

1,939

2,181

4,120

Germans.........

7,284

8,455

15,739

Austrians and Hungarians......

1,030

773

1,803

Belgians......

17,215

15,697

32,912

Dutch..........................

4,107

3,645

7,752

Spaniards......

1.441

1,292

2,733

Italians........

5,731

2,358

8,089

Swiss...

7,533

4,867

12.400

Russians...

560

531

1,091

Poles........

1,636

845

2,481

Swedes, Norwegians, and Danes.

296

176

472

Turks, Greeks, Wallachs, etc.....

507

202

709

Asiatics........

105

26

167

Other nationalities..........

784

742

1,526

2,499

2,603

5,102

Total.......................

927,224

924,568

1,851,792

In regard to religious belief, the population was divided into 1,760,168 Roman Catholics, 41,672 Protestants (Oalvinists 19,423, Lutherans 12,634, other sects 4,615), 23,434 Jews, 13,905 professing no belief, 1,572 Mohammedans, Buddhists, etc, and 11,041 unascertained. Of the total population over 6 years of age (1,704,152), 175,510 (69,911 males and 105,599 females) were unable to read or write, and 47,-467 (21,812 males and 25,655 females) were unable to write; of the former, 135,489 were over 20 years, and of the latter, 28,426. The following table, taken from the figures of the census of 1872, shows, though very generally, the occupations and professions of the population:

PROFESSION OR OCCUPATION.

Persons actively engaged.

Male.

Female.

Agriculture (and trades connected with it)

2.361

655

Industries and Manufactures.........

295,211

197.987

Commerce and commercial pursuits........

148,651

52,207

Occupations connected with transportation (railways, &c), with banking, brokerage, and commission....

45,661

8,581

Miscellaneous professions *...........

9.076

6.659

Liberal professions...........

95,800

17,219

Persons living exclusively from the income of their capital...

51.589

59,899

Persons without profession or occupation..

5,041

10,217

Persons not classified †...........

15,484

12,265

Persons whose professions are unknown or have not been determined..........

4,301

8,432

Paris is divided for administrative and political purposes into 20 arrondissements, each of which is subdivided into four " quarters." Each arrondissement has its mayor (maire) and its administrative officers. The official names and numbers of the arrondissements and quarters are shown below (the arrondissements with Roman, the quarters with Arabic numerals):

I. Louvre

1. St. Germ. TAuxerrois.

2. Halles.

3. Palais Royal.

4. Place Vendome.

II. Bourse

5. Gaillon.

6. Vivienne.

7. Mail.

8. Bonne Nouvelle.

III. Temple

9. Arts et Metiers.

10. Enfants Rouges.

11. Archives.

12. Ste. Avoie.

IV. Hotel De Ville

13. St. Merry.

14. St. Gervais.

15. Arsenal.

16. Notre Dame.

V. Pantheon

17. St. Victor.

18. Jardin des Plantes.

19. Val de Grace.

20. Sorbonne.

VI. Luxembourg

21. Monnaie.

22. Odeon.

28. Notre Dame des Champs.

24. St. Germain des Pres.

VII. Palais Bourbon

25. St. Thomas d'Aquin.

26. Invalides.

27. Ecole Militaire.

28. Gros Caillou.

VIII. Elysee

29. Champs Elysees.

30. Faubourg du Boule.

31. Madeleine.

32. Europe.

IX. Opera

33. St. Georges.

34. Chaussee d'Antin.

35. Faubourg Montmartre.

36. Kochechouart.

X. Enclos St. Laurent

37. St. Vincent de Paul.

35. Porte St. Denis.

39. Porte St Martin.

40. Hopital St. Louis.

XI. Popincourt

41. Fone Mericourt.

42. St. Ambroise.

43. Boquette.

44. Ste. Marguerite.

XII. Reuilly

45. Bel Air.

46. Picpus.

47. Bercy.

48. Quinze Vingts.

XIII. Gobelins

49. Salpetriere.

50. Gare.

51. Maison Blanche.

52. Croulebarbe.

XIV. Observatoire

53. Mt. Parnasse.

54. Sante.

55. Petit Montrouge.

56. Plaisance.

XV. Vaugirard

57. St. Lambert.

58. Necker.

59. Grenelle.

60. Javelle.

XVI. Passy

61. Auteuil.

62. La Muette.

63. Porte Dauphine.

64. Des Bassins.

XVII. Batignolles-Monceaux

65. Ternes.

66. Plaine de Monceaux.

67. Batignolles.

68. Epinettes.

XVIII. Butte Montmartre

69. Grandes Carrieres.

70. Cliquancourt.

71. Goutte d'Or.

72. La Chapelle.

XIX. Buttes Chaumont

73. La Villette.

74.. Pont de Flandre.

75. Amerique.

76. Combat.

XX. Menilmontant

77. Belleville.

78. St. Fargeau.

79. Pere Lachaise.

80. Charonne.

In spite of the official designations given above, some ancient names and others coined in recent times are always applied in popular parlance to certain of the quarters. The most prominent examples of this are the old names quartier St. Antoine, applied to the whole region surrounding the present place de la Bastille; de la Cite, to the island on which the chief part of mediaeval Paris was built; faubourg St. Germain, to the greater part of the 7th arrondissement and a small part of the 15th. Of coined names, the most commonlv used are those of Latin quarter (quartier Latin), applied to the former quartier St. Jacques (now forming part of the quartier du Pantheon), and quartier Breda, to the region occupying the northern part of the quartier de l'Opera and its vicinity. - The climate of Paris is variable, but very healthful, moist rather than dry, with an average annual rainfall, in 105 rainy days, of 22 inches. Falls of snow are rare and slight.

* The more detailed French tables include in this category landlords, keepers of baths and gymnasiums, exhibitors, acrobats, and other classes.

† Foundlings, the sick in public hospitals, inmates of prisons and asylums, etc, etc.

The mean temperature is 51° F., the average summer and winter extremes being respectively 96° above and 1° below zero. The city lies in a nearly level plain, broken on the right bank of the Seine by a range of hills (Jbuttes) about two miles from the river. This plain extends above a singular geological formation called the Paris basin, the arrangement of which presents a peculiar assemblage of natural advantages; its different strata supply the city's water, its building stone, gravel, etc. Over an inexhaustible reservoir which, tapped by artesian wells, supplies extensive quarters of the town with water, spreads, first, the great chalk formation, to which succeed in ascending order the following layers: plastic clay, marine limestone, silicious (fresh-water) limestone, gypsum, alternating with marls abounding in fossil remains. The alluvial deposit is of great fertility, yielding incessant crops. It is estimated that 324,000,000 cub. ft. of building stone have been extracted from the now exhausted quarries, which underlie about one eighth of the surface of the city, and have been used as catacombs since 1784. (See Catacombs.) The Seine, approaching from the south, receives the Marne little more than a mile outside the enceinte, enters the city at its S. E. corner, flows N. W. and then S. W., leaves the enceinte at its S. "W. extremity, and passes in great bends, like the letter S, across the fertile plain between Paris and the forest of St. Germain, 10 m.

N. W. The steep hills of Montmartre and the Buttes Chaumont, both within the city limits, and both hollowed by constant quarrying for gypsum, form the only other noteworthy natural features of the city's site. Paris is surrounded by a complete belt (enceinte) of fortifications, broken by 57 gates, besides the entrances of railways. It consists of a bastioned and terraced wall, 21 m. in circuit, presenting 94 bastions, designated by their numbers in order, proceeding N., W., S., and E. around the circuit from the entrance of the Seine back to that point. The whole is surrounded by a continuous ditch 22 m. in circuit and 49 ft. wide. The wall has 34 ft. of escarpment, faced with stone 11 ft. thick. This interior system of defence is supplemented by the following 16 outlying forts, named in their order from the Seine in the direction described above in the case of the bastions, and the distance from the enceinte being given in each case: Charenton, 3,600 yards; Vincennes, 2,290; Nogent, 5,342; Rosny, 5,069; Noisy, 3,270; Romainville, 1,570; Auber villi ers, 2,071; Est, 3,815; Double Couronne du Nord, 5,450; LaBriche, 5,560; Mont Valerien, 4,360; Issy, 2,400; Yanves, 2,290; Montrouge, 1,690; Bicetre, 1,635; Ivry, 2,725. Forts de No-gent, Rosny, and Noisy are beyond the eastern limit of the plan given with this article. - According to the census of 1872, the city of Paris contained 3,619 streets, places, courts, squares, quays, and other places of public right of way; 300 isolated public edifices, besides public buildings included in blocks or groups with other structures; and 63,963 houses, of which 61,622 were inhabited, 1,947 uninhabited, and 394 in process of construction.

Of the inhabited nouses, 694 were occupied by public establishments, and 60,928 by private citizens. In these houses were 851,513 locations, or arrangements for separate dwellings (as these are usually arranged in continental cities, a considerable number in each house). Of these, 694,095 were occupied by private citizens, 65,257 were vacant, and 92,161 were occupied by industrial and commercial establishments, etc. The most noteworthy of the Paris thoroughfares are the boulevards (from the German Bollwerlc, bulwark or rampart; the great thoroughfares passing round the borders of many French towns are so designated from their having generally taken the place of old fortifications). The most famous and the oldest of these are the boulevards mterieurs, on the site of the old walls destroyed about 1670, and extending from the Madeleine to the place de la Bastille. Beginning at the church of the Madeleine, and going east, the successive portions of their extent are called the boulevards de la Madeleine, des Capucines, des Italiens, Montmartre, Poissoniere, Bonne Nou-velle, St. Denis, St. Martin, du Temple, des Filles du Oalvaire, and Beaumarchais; leading from the place de la Bastille to the Seine are the boulevards de l'Arsenal and de Bourdon. The name boulevards is also applied to the following new and beautiful streets which were among the public works completed under Napoleon III.: boulevard du Prince Eugene, from the chateau d'Eau to the place du Trone; Malesherbes, from the Madeleine to the place Wagram; de la Reine Hortense, from the Arc de Triomphe to the Jardin Monceaux; Hauss-mann, from the avenue de Friedland to the boulevard Montmartre; Richard Lenoir, from the place de la Bastille to the Douane; de Strasbourg, continued by the boulevard de Sevastopol, from the Strasburg railway station to the Seine. The boulevards exterieurs form a line of broad and continuous road on the site of the old octroi wall.

Distinctive names are also applied to their various portions. The boulevards inter ieurs, and especially those of Montmartre, the Italiens, and the Capucines, are the very centre of the brighter part of the life of Paris. Along them, or near by, in the streets opening from them, such as the rue de la Paix, chaussee d'Antin, boulevards Malesherbes and Hauss-mann, the rues Laffitte, Vivienne, and Richelieu, are shops with the costliest silks, rarest jewels, and finest works of art; restaurants and cafes wainscoted with mirrors, where the latest news and rumors of the day are reported or invented; the great banking houses; the best opera houses and theatres; the most fashionable or otherwise noted loungers and celebrities of the town. " France is the centre of civilized nations, Paris is the centre of France, the boulevard des-Italiens is the centre of Paris," says an enthusiastic modern Parisian. - Besides the boulevards, there are in Paris a great number of other streets having, like the rue de Rivoli, rue Royale, rue Castiglione, etc, an almost world-wide fame for their beauty or the activity and life prevailing in them; but what gives to the city its especial attraction is the multitude of beautiful and universally frequented promenades, places, gardens, and squares.

The most noteworthy succession of these is the remarkable series which begins with the exterior gardens of the Louvre. From these lofty colonnaded archways give entrance to the beautiful court of that palace; beyond is the place Napoleon with its garden, surrounded by the ornate inner facades of the new Louvre, except on one side, that opens on the place du Carrousel. This is an immense palace court, the chief ornament of which is a triumphal arch, designed after the arch of Septimius Severus at Rome, adorned by eight Corinthian columns in red marble and surmounted by a triumphal car and four bronze horses, modelled after the horses of St. Mark in Venice. This court is bounded on the west side by what was the main body of the Tuileries palace, whose western facade, 1,000 ft. long, now in ruins, looks on the gardens of the same name, with their flowers, fountains, statuary, orange trees, and groves of horse chestnut trees, through which the grand alley leads to the finest square in Paris, once named place de Louis XV., then baptized place de la Be volution in blood flowing from the guillotine set up there in the reign of terror, and since styled place de la Concorde. It is ornamented with balustrades and rostral columns, and with eight pavilions, each surmounted by a figure representing one of the principal French towns, Strasburg still among the rest.

In the middle of the place, between two fine fountains, rises the obelisk of Luxor, a monolith 72 ft. high, first set up in front of the great temple of Thebes 32 centuries ago by Rameses II. It stands on the spot where once stood a bronze equestrian statue of Louis XV., which was afterward melted into republican cannon, and where his grandson was executed. It was erected herein 1836 by the orders of Louis Philippe. On the north of the square are two palaces, each 288 ft. front, with colonnaded facades resting on arcades; they are separated by the rue Royale, 90 ft. wide, which opens a view of the portico of the Madeleine. On the south and on the left bank of the Seine, crossed here by a fine bridge partly built of stone from the Bas-tile, are the Palais Bourbon and palace of the ministry of foreign affairs, beyond which are seen the spires of Ste. Clotilde and the gilded dome of the Invalided On the W. side, between two groups in white marble by Cous-tou, each representing an impatient horse restrained by an attendant, is the entrance to the grand avenue of the Champs Elysees, which is a mile and a quarter long. The Champs filysees are planted with trees and laid out in parterres profuse with flowering plants and shrubs.

Here are cafes, open-air concerts, marionette theatres, apparatus for children's games, and a hundred tasteful booths stored with playthings and toothsome refreshments; and on all pleasant days and evenings in the mild season a multitude of old and young, strolling or sporting under the trees, or sitting on the rows of chairs along the sidewalks watching the carriages and horsemen that throng the avenue. For other tastes there are a circus and a panorama; and in close proximity the Mabille, the most brilliant and notorious of Paris dancing gardens. On the Champs Elysees also is the palais de Vindustrie, originally constructed for the world's fair of 1855, whose ample spaces are now put to use for national exhibitions of industry, horticulture, agriculture, the fine arts, etc, some one or more of which are held there yearly. Midway in its course the avenue spreads into a circular place, called the rond point, embellished with fountains, and thence continues, bordered now with stately houses, to the place de l'Etoile. Her,e is the arch of triumph, begun by the first Napoleon for a monument to himself and the glory of the grande armee, but only completed by that peace-loving monarch Louis Philippe. It is the grandest extant structure of its kind, rising in harmonious proportions from a base of 147 by 75 ft. to a height of 162 ft.

The central archway is 48 ft. broad and 95 ft. high. The inner walls are inscribed with the names of 384 generals and 96 victories. Its most striking sculptured decorations are four groups of colossal figures in high relief, one of which, hy Rude, symbolizing the departure of the recruits for the army in 1792, seems inspired by the patriotic fighting force and passion of that time. Radiating from the place de l'Etoile are ten broad avenues. One of these is the avenue Bois de Boulogne (formerly de l'Imperatrice), a mile long and 300 ft. wide. It consists of a carriageway, foot walks, and a bridle road, and is bordered by continuous gardens, beyond which on either hand is again a carriage road, and yet beyond gardens and villas. This leads to the Bois de Boulogne, a park of 2,500 acres, just outside the fortifications. Laid out since 1852 in the modern style of landscape gardening, its broad roads, mazy paths, and shaded groves are the resort of all'classes of Parisians. Within its boundaries are artificial lakes, of which the largest is three fourths of a mile long, a respectable waterfall, two race courses, and the javelin cPacclimatation. This last, occupying 33 acres, tastefully laid out, is a model in its kind.

The only other of the large "exterior" parks of Paris, besides the Bois de Boulogne, is the park of Vincennes, on the eastern side of the city. (See Park, and Vincennes.) The jardin des plantes, a botanical garden with zoological museum and menagerie, much like the zoological gardens of London, is on the left bank of and near the river, in the S. E. part of the city. It is a parallelogram of 57 acres, and is admirably laid out and kept. The menagerie is one of the most perfect in the world. The gardens of the Luxembourg are also on the left bank, in the quarter and beside the palace of that name. They cover 85 acres, are beautifully laid out, and have some especially fine alleys of trees and flowers. The Pare Monceaux, at the extremity of the boulevard de Malesherbes, is another pleasant garden, its present tasteful arrangement being the result of quite recent improvements by the municipality. Many of the squares throughout the city have something of the character of small parks, from the shade trees and flowers with which they are embellished; nearly all the larger ones have fountains, generally very tasteful and beautiful.

Among the public places of Paris which have nothing of the park-like character, but are generally merely paved squares, the chief are, besides the places de la Concorde, du Carrousel, and others already mentioned, the place de l'Hotel de Ville, one of the largest; place de la Bastille, on the site of that fortress, embellished by the tall "column of July," a bronze pillar 154 ft. high dedicated to the citizens who fell in the revolution of 1830; the place Yend6me, with the famous column Vendome in its centre, a shaft 143 ft. high, of stone covered with bronze, on which are bass reliefs commemorative of Napoleon's campaigns in 1805, the whole being in imitation of the column of Trajan at Rome; the broad place du Palais Royal, S. of the Palais Royal and between it and the Louvre; the place du Chateau d'Eau, between the boulevards du Temple and St. Martin, an irregular but extensive open place; the place de l'Opera, deriving its chief beauty from the great opera house, before which it lies; the place du Trone, an extensive place, but away from most of the centres of activity; the place du Trocadero, a fine and elevated place opposite the Champ de Mars; the place Notre Dame, before the cathedral of that name; the place St. Michel, on the left bank opposite the island; the place des Victoires, with an equestrian statue of Louis XIY.; the place du Chatelet, etc.

Among the open spaces of the city, the Champ de Mars deserves special mention. It is an extensive parade ground, about 1,000 yards by 500, on the left bank of the Seine, between the river and the military school. It was laid out in 1790, and the rampart of turf around it was completed in the week between July 7 and 14 of that year, by 60,000 volunteers, men and women, who worked night and day in their eagerness to prepare the field for the great fete de la federation when the king swore allegiance to the constitution. It has been the scene of many very remarkable historic events, and is now used for great reviews, etc. The buildings of the universal exposition of 1867 were erected upon it, but the greater part have been removed. - The bridges of Paris, 26 in number, are as follows, named in the order in which they cross the Seine, beginning at the entry of the river into the city: ponts National, de Bercy, d'Austerlitz, de Constan-tine, de la Tournelle (left of the ile St. Louis), Marie, Louis Philippe (these two right of the ile St. Louis), St. Louis (connecting the two islands), de l'Archeveche, au Double, St. Charles, St. Michel (these four on the left of the ile de la Cite), d'Arcole, Notre-Dame, au Change (these three on the right of the ile), Neuf, des Arts, du Carrousel, Royal, de Sol-ferino, de la Concorde, des Invalides, de 1'Alma, d'lena, and de Grenelle, besides a railway bridge.

Among the finest of them are the seven shown in the accompanying illustration, those from the pont d'Arcole to the pont Royal, inclusive. - The so-called passages form a noteworthy class of Parisian thoroughfares; they are narrow streets or alleys, roofed with glass, intended for foot passengers only, and lined with shops, etc. The best known are the passage des Panoramas, the passage Vivienne, and the passage Choiseul. Besides boulevards, avenues, streets, etc, the great quais along the banks of the Seine must not be forgotten in naming the Parisian public ways. These are too numerous to particularize here, but all afford wide promenades along the river, and are among the most lively and pleasant of the city thoroughfares. The streets throughout the city are paved with asphalt, which has proved remarkably successful as to durability and convenience. It is said that another motive to the use of this pavement, like the arrangement of the streets in radii easily commanded by artillery from a central point, was found in strategic reasons; the square stones of the old paving furnishing great facilities for barricade building, as proved on several occasions. - Among the most remarkable public works of Paris is its great system of sewerage.

The main sewers, resembling enormous subterranean canals, are of recent date, nearly all the present ones, with most of their branches, having been constructed since 1855. In general the network of sewers corresponds to that of thoroughfares, the small sewers passing into the large ones as the streets into the boulevards and avenues, and the contents of the whole finally passing into a few enormous mains, like that under the rue de Rivoli. These again empty into two subterranean canals, which carry the sewage away from the city and debouche into the Seine 7 m. below. The aggregate length of main drainage in Paris now reaches the surprising extent of more than 250 m. For details of their construction, etc, see Sewerage. - The enormous quantity of water consumed by the city is drawn from the Seine and the canal de l'Ourcq, the aqueduct of Arcueil, and the immense artesian wells of Grenelle and Passy. (See Artesian Wells, vol. i., p. 775.) Great aqueducts, begun in 1863, are still in progress, by which it is designed to supply in addition water from the Dhuys and the springs in the valley of the Vanne. There is now under the streets of Paris a total length of about 92 m. of water pipes, and the water brought by them is distributed through more than 200 public fountains, about 60 ornamental fountains, nearly 4,500 hydrants, and about 4,000 drinking places, watering troughs, public washing places, and other similar channels.

Of the 220,000 cubic metres daily distributed, 135,000 are used for watering the streets, washing out sewers, etc, and for the public fountains; 15,000 are reserved for government and official uses; and 70,000 are used for the ordinary supply to citizens. - In 1874 there were employed in Paris 10,000 hackney coaches, owned and directed by several large companies, 725 omnibuses, and about 250 railway omnibuses, besides a considerable number of horse cars. A line of railway encircles the city (the ligne de ceinture), affording important strategic as well as popular facilities for communication. - Among the beautiful or famous buildings of Paris, probably the best known are the palaces. Of these the two principal (now united) are described in special articles. (See Louvre, and Tuileries.) Near them stands the Elysee palace, at present the residence when he is in the city of the president of the republic. It was built early in the 18th century by a private nobleman; was next purchased and for a time occupied by Mme. de Pompadour, who added to its pretty garden a part of the Champs filysees; it was afterward set apart for the use of ambassadors extraordinary sent to the court of France; then fell into the hands of the rich banker Beaujon, and passed from him to the duchess of Bourbon; was used as a printing house during the early years of the revolution, and then sold to private speculators, who converted it into a place of public amusement; was afterward bought and inhabited by Hurat, till he left it to be king of Naples, when it again became government property, and was at different times occupied by Napoleon I. It has been inhabited by the duke of Wellington and Alexander I. of Russia. Louis XVIII. restored to it one of its earlier names, Elysee Bourbon, and gave it to the duke de Berry, after whose assassination it descended to the duke of Bordeaux. After December, 1848, it took the name of Ely see Nationale, and became the official residence of the prince president Louis Napoleon, who on becoming emperor changed its name to Elysee Napoleon, and intended it for the ultimate residence of the prince imperial.

The palace on the quai d'Orsay was destined by Napoleon I. to be the residence of his son, the king of Rome; Charles X. had more work done on this fine edifice with a view to fitting it for national industrial exhibitions; Louis Philippe completed it; Louis Napoleon's imperial council of state occupied it while the second empire ' lasted; the followers of the commune burned it. The still standing walls are beautiful. By its side, entirely restored from its injuries, is the ornate little palace of the legion of honor, built in 1784 by the prince of Salm, who was guillotined in 1794, when it was disposed of by lottery, and fell to a journeyman hair dresser. The Luxembourg palace is remarkable for its happy combination of graceful lines with solidity of effect; the gardens are not inferior to those of the Tuileries. The hotel de ville, between the rue de Rivoli and the river, opposite the upper end of the ile de la Cite, was, before its almost total destruction under the commune in 1871, a beautiful building in the style of the renaissance, forming a quadrangle about 300 ft. by 250, and having three courts.

Its exterior is profusely ornamented, several hundred statues in niches forming part of its decorations; while the state apartments within were among the most magnificent rooms in the world, the great galerie des fetes being especially splendid. This structure is connected with nearly every important event in the modern history of Paris. It was begun in 1533, and the first building, about one fourth the size of the subsequent one, was finished in 1628. It remained almost untouched till 1837, when improvements were begun, and in 1842 it was enlarged to its greatest dimensions. Its whole cost has been estimated at 16,000,000 francs. In 1873 the government selected for the reconstruction of the burned edifice the plans of Messrs. Ballu and Deperthes, who rebuild it very much in the old fashion. The Palais Royal is a very large quadrangular building, surrounding an extensive court or garden about 230 yards- by 100, the scene of many historical events, notably of public meetings during the revolution, and of the speeches of Camille Desmoulins and others.

The lower story is now occupied by ranges of shops, among the finest in Paris. The palace has been the residence of various members of the successive ruling families of France. The H6tel des Invalides, occupying, with its courts, etc, an area of about 16 acres near the left bank of the Seine, W. of the faubourg St. Germain, was founded under Louis XIV., in 1670, as an asylum for veteran soldiers, and has been enlarged by later sovereigns. In the church of St. Louis, forming a part of the Invalides, is the tomb of Napoleon I., the great porphyry sarcophagus standing directly under the dome which crowns the edifice. Other noteworthy public buildings are the Palais de Justice, the Bourse (shown in the accompanying engraving), the military school, and the magnificent and richly decorated opera house, built just before the end of the second empire. - Many of the churches are remarkable for their architecture, paintings, or historic associations. Most impressive of all is the cathedral of Notre Dame, a noble specimen of the early pointed style of so-called Gothic; it is cruciform, with an extreme length of 390 ft., width of transepts 144 ft., height of vaulting 105 ft., width of western front 128 ft., flanked by two massive towers 224 ft. high. (See Cathedral, Vol. iv., pp. 118, 119).

Paris and its Environs.

Paris and its Environs.

Bounds of city under Louis VII. Bounds under Philip Augustus.

Bounds of city under Louis VII. Bounds under Philip Augustus.

Bounds under Louis XIV. Barriers under Louis XVI.

Bounds under Louis XIV. Barriers under Louis XVI.

1. Hetel de Cluny. 2. Institut de France. 3. Notre Dame. 4. Palais de Justice. 5. Place du Roi de Rome. 6. Avenue Bois de Boulogne. 7. Arc deTriomphe. 8. Avenue des Champs Elysfies. 9. Pare de Monceaux. 10. Palais de 1'ElysSe. 11. Palais de l'Industrie. 12. Place de la Concorde. 13. Madeleine. 14. Grand Opera. 15. Place Vend6me. 16. Theatre des ltaliens. 17. Bourse. 18. Palais Royal and Theatre Francais. 19. Tuileries. 20. Louvre. 21. Halles Centrales. 22. Hotel de Ville. 23. Place Royale. 24. Place de la Bastille. 25. Cemetery of Montmartre. 26. Bassin de la Villette. 27. Custom House. 28. Gare de l'Arsenal. 29. Cemetery of Pere Lachaise. 30. Place du Trane. 31. Jardin des Plantes. 32. Wine Market. 33. College de France. 34. Sorbonne. 35. Pantheon. 36. Observatory. 37. Luxembourg Garden. 38. Palais du Senat. 39. St. Sulpice. 40. Corps Legislatif. 41. Archiepiscopal Palace. 42. H6tel des Invalides. 43. Military School. 44. Champ de Mars. 45. Cemetery of Mont Parnasse.

The Tuileries and Louvre, before 1871.

The Tuileries and Louvre, before 1871.

Arc de Triomphe de l'Etoile.

Arc de Triomphe de l'Etoile.

View of the Seven Bridges.

View of the Seven Bridges.

The Bourse.

The Bourse.

New Opera House.

New Opera House.

Church of Notre Dame, rear view.

Church of Notre Dame, rear view.

Near by is the arrowy spire of la Sainte Ohapelle. This church was originally built in the surprisingly short space of three years, 1245-'8, by order of St. Louis, to contain the crown of thorns and piece of the true cross bought by that monarch from the emperor of Constantinople. Injured by the wear of time, wasted by fire, desecrated to a strange variety of base uses before, during, and after the revolution, the labor of restoring it to almost more than its original splendor busied learned archaists and skilled architects from 1837 to 1867. "It now presents," says the most eminent of them, " the completest, perhaps the finest, specimen of the religious architecture of the middle of the 13th century." St. Germain des Pres is a venerable instance of the Romanesque style; that of the renaissance is largely illustrated in St. Eustache, and more curiously in St. Etienne du Mont; the Italian or Palladian style beautifully in St. Paul et St. Louis. Ste. Genevieve, an immense pile, better known as the Pantheon, is distinguished for its Corinthian portico of columns 60 ft. high, supporting a sculptured pediment, and for its lofty dome, which, however, in every quality but size, is far inferior to that of the church of the Invalides, the masterpiece in its kind of the time of Louis XIV. (See Pantheon.) St. Germain l'Auxerrois, apart from its rich ornamentation, claims attention because from its belfry was given the signal for the St. Bartholomew massacre; St. Gervais for a singularly beautiful chapel.

The exterior of the Madeleine presents a grand reproduction of pure antique forms. It stands on a raised platform 328 ft. long by 138 ft. broad, which is ascended at either end by a flight of 28 steps; a surrounding colonnade of 52 pillars 49 ft. high, supporting a richly sculptured frieze and cornice, intercolumnar niches in the side walls filled with colossal statues of 'saints, the largest sculptured pediment in the world crowning the noblest portico the world has seen since the Athenian Parthenon, are the eminent features of this magnificent Christianized Grecian temple. St. Vincent de Paul, Notre Dame de Lo-rette, Ste. Clotilde, St. Augustin, and the Trini-te are noteworthy, if not altogether admirable, as exemplifications of contemporary architectural talent and decorative taste in their application to religious purposes. In the spring of 1875 the assembly resolved upon the erection of a magnificent "votive church," to cost 10,000,000 francs, on the summit of Montmar-tre. The corner stone was laid June 29, 1875. - Many of the hotels of the city (notably the Grand Hotel on the boulevard des Capucines, and the Hotel du Louvre on the rue de Kivoli, both belonging to a large stock company), and several of the club houses (especially that of the Jockey club on the corner of the boulevard and the rue de Helder), are fine and luxuriously fitted structures; and there are many beautiful private residences, especially in the neighborhood of the Champs Elysees. - Everything relating to the public charities of Paris is subject to the superior control of the general administration of public assistance, which is itself a dependence of the ministry of the interior.

It has at its head a director and a council of general management composed of 20 members, presided over by the prefects of the Seine and of police. "Within its jurisdiction, besides bureaux de bienfaisance in each of the 20 arrondissements, and an extensive system of outdoor aid, are 34 general and special hospitals, almshouses, asylums, and retreats; five others are under the direct charge of the minister of the interior, and three military hospitals under the direct charge of t the ministry of war. The chief of the hospitals is the very ancient and famous institution of the H6tel-Dieu, founded early in the 9th century by the brothers of St. Christopher, who called it the hospital of St. Christopher. The names Notre Dame and Maison-Dieu de Paris were subsequently applied to it, that of H6tel-Dieu first occurring in an act of Louis VII. It occupied successively a number of buildings, frequent changes to larger quarters being necessary on account of the rapid growth of its needs. Its present structure, begun in 1868 and finished in 1874, stands on the ile de la Cit6 near the church of Notre Dame. It covers 22,000 square metres of land, and includes three separate series of buildings. There are nearly 1,000 beds, under the charge of a medical and surgical staff of more than 100 persons.

Other general hospitals of note are la Pitie, la Charite, Lariboisiere, the hospitals St. Antoine, Necker, Cochin, etc. Special hospitals are those of St. Louis for cutaneous diseases; du Midi and Lourcine, for the treatment respectively of males and females for syphilitic disease; a hospital for children; and la Mater-nit6, for accouchements. The average annual number of admissions to the hospitals is 62,500 medical and 23,000 surgical cases; of cures, 54,000 medical and 22,000 surgical cases; of deaths, 8,000 medical and 1,400 surgical cases. The whole number of beds in hospitals and hospices is 19,600. For an account of the administration of the Paris prisons and penitentiaries, see Prison. The most famous prison building remaining since the destruction of the Bastile is the Conciergerie, on the left bank of the Seine, adjoining the Palais de Justice; the chief modern prisons are those of the Mazas and La Roquette. For accounts of several other noteworthy features of Parisian administration see Cemetery, Mont de Piete, and Morgue. - Paris is still honorably distinguished for its higher educational institutions, although under the late empire they somewhat declined, at least relatively, in respect of sciences and letters, from the capital rank they had attained before 1850. The academie universitaire, the much changed descendant of the famous old university of Paris (which embraced the college of the Sorbonne), consists of five schools or faculties, theology, law, medicine, science, and letters, each with a numerous corps of professors.

The number of students is ordinarily between 7,000 and 8,000. The college de France has 36 professors in all departments of letters, philosophy, and science. Their lectures are public and gratuitous, as are those of the 16 professors who lecture on natural history, comparative anatomy, botany, geology, chemistry, and the connected sciences at the museum of natural history, and of an equal number at the conservatory of arts and trades, the principal object of whose teaching is the application of science to the industrial arts. Among other special schools worthy of mention are: the polytechnic school, corresponding somewhat to the American military academy at West Point; the school of roads and bridges (ecole des ponts et chaussees), for instruction in all branches of civil engineering; the school of mines, for instruction in the arts and sciences bearing upon mining operations; the central school, for the practical education of civil engineers, architects, and directors of manufacturing establishments; the ecole d'etat major, for the education of military staff officers; the normal school, with 27 professors; the school of charts, with seven lecturers on palaeography, political institutions, and diplomacy; the school of fine arts, with a museum and courses of instruction in every department of the plastic arts by eminent theorists and artists; the free school of design, mathematics, and ornamental sculpture; the free school of design for young women under the direction of Rosa Bonheur; the conservatory or academy of music and declamation, with 600 pupils, which counts among its 70 teachers- and masters in vocal, and instrumental music, and in all branches of the histrionic art, many of the most eminent composers and professional artists of the day; six schools for the education of Roman Catholic priests, of which the seminary of St. Sulpice with 14, and that of Notre Dame with 17 directors and professors, are the principal; and a seminary for the education of Israelitish pastors.

The six lyceums of Paris are national institutions, where the course of classic and scientific instruction is shaped with a view to tlqfb pupil's further study for one of the liberal professions on his entrance to the polytechnic and other superior scientific schools. The colleges of Ste. Barbe (on the list of whose alumni are the names of Ignatius Loyola and John Calvin) and St. Stanislas are immense private establishments. The colleges Rollin and Ohaptal, and the ecole Turgot, are municipal institutions, where the course of study looks rather to the pupil's career in the ordinary paths of business life. There are numerous large public libraries in Paris, six of which are daily open to all comers. The largest of these, having for its only rival that of the British museum, is the national (formerly royal or imperial) library. It contains more than 2,000,000 printed volumes, 150,000 manuscripts, 300,000 maps, charts, and topographical views, 1,300,000 engravings, and a cabinet of coins and medals numbering over 150,000 objects.

This invaluable collection is constantly increased by gifts and purchases, and by the action of a law as old as the time of Henry II. (1556), which requires the deposit of a copy of every new thing printed in France. The libraries next in importance for the number and value of their printed and manuscript treasures are the Mazarin, the Arsenal, Sorbonne, and Ste. Genevieve. The large libraries belonging to some of the schools, ministries, and other national institutions are rich in special departments of science and literature. They are not freely open to the public, but every reasonable application for access to them is generally granted. For an account of the five academies composing the institut de France, see Academy. The observatory has been briefly described as " the headquarters of astronomical science," a name it long deserved. Besides public institutions, some of the more important of which are mentioned above, there is hardly a department of science, literature, or art which has not one or more societies or associations for its study, encouragement, or exercise. - Among the most notable museums of Paris, that of natural history connected with the jardin des plantes, the common name for large zoological as well as botanical gardens, is remarkably rich in comparative anatomy, anthropology, zoology, minerals, geology, and botany.

The museums of morbid and comparative anatomy belonging to the medical school are of excellent fulness in their kind. That of the h6tel de Cluny, itself a curious relic of the architecture of the 16th century, built partly over the foundations of an imperial Roman palace, is consecrated to furniture, arms, and works of art of the middle ages and the renaissance, and to some Gallo-Roman antiquities. That of the conservatory of arts and trades contains models of old and newly invented machines and tools, together with illustrative specimens of mechanical and chemical products, and of natural materials within the domain of industrial processes. In the museum of artillery is a large collection of the instruments invented by men of all ages for their mutual destruction, from stone hatchets to rifled cannon. The mineralogy of France, geographically arranged by her departments, is exhibited at the school of mines. The numismatic museum at the mint displays the coins and medals struck in France from the time of Charlemagne to the present.

The museum at the national printing house offers samples of early and modern printing in curious variety, of which not the least noteworthy are the productions of its own press, such as the Lord's Prayer in 150 different languages, and copies of limitation de Christ that approach the perfection of typography. The museum of the Louvre, worthily occupying the wide spaces of that magnificent palace, is divided into twelve general departments, such as of painting, designs and engravings, ancient sculpture, modern sculpture, Assyrian antiquities, Egyptian antiquities, etc, to which are added large collections of rare and exquisite specimens of ceramic art, of carved work in wood and ivory, crystals, jewels, etc. Other European galleries are richer in the works of certain masters and of single schools, but none of them offers to the student so comprehensively instructive a view of all the schools. The museum of the Luxembourg, filling but a small part of the palace of that name, though a fine and most interesting collection of works by contemporary French painters and sculptors, is not nearly sufficient as an exemplification of the present French school. The conditions of admission to these museums are most liberal.

Those of the Louvre and of the Luxembourg are freely open to all comers six days, and to copyists five days in the week. Of the painters, designers, sculptors, and engravers whose works are admitted to the yearly salon or exhibition of fine arts, the average for the past ten years of Parisian residents is about 1,200.

La Sainte Chapelle.

La Sainte Chapelle.

The Madeleine.

The Madeleine.

It is hardly necessary to add, in view of the conditions of admission, that this number represents but a fraction of the applicants, and that in no one year do nearly all resident artists apply. - Paris may be called the capital of dramatic art and literature. The first theatre of Paris, not to say of the world, is the Comedie Francaise, the French theatre par excellence. It was founded in 1680 by the company that had been directed by Moliere. There elocution, gesture, attitude, costume, composition of stage groups, and whatever contributes to the perfection of histrionic art, are exhibited in unrivalled completeness. The national academy of music, or Opera, is famed for its orchestra, ballet, and scenic effects. These two are regarded as properly national institutions, and are sustained at their height of superiority by large government aid, which in less proportions is also granted to three other theatres. There are 33 theatres in Paris. On the receipts of theatres, balls, concerts, and all other places of public amusement, a tax, nominally of 10 per cent., but really in recent years of about 8 per cent., is levied for the benefit of the public charities.

In 1869, an average year, their receipts amounted to 19,-500,000 francs, and the poor tax to 1,800,000. In round numbers the theatres can seat 30,000 auditors, for whose entertainment 850 musicians and 2,000 actors proper, vocalists, and other performers are employed. For the principal journals of Paris, see Newspapers. - The government of Paris has varied in its character with the changes of national regime. At present (1875) there is a municipal council of 80 members chosen by popular election, whose deliberations and acts are strictly limited to matters of local administration. The prefects of the Seine and of the police, both appointed by the general government, have the right at all times to be present and be heard, in certain cases with controlling voice, at their meetings. Sanitary regulations and measures for keeping the peace and political order are enforced under the general supervision of the prefect of police. Besides exercising functions of a wider national reach, he is the immediate chief of all the local police.

This consists, besides special political and other agents, of the civil police proper or " guardians of the public peace" (formerly sergents de mile), now numbering about 6,000; of the two legions of the military garde repuolicaine (formerly municipal guard and guard of Paris), numbering 6,000 foot and 1,500 horse; and of the military corps of sa-peurs pompiers, specially trained to firemen's duty, which they perform admirably, numbering about 1,300 men and officers. Supplementary to these as preservers of order is the garrison of Paris, the strength of which varies according to circumstances. Not being yet relieved from the state of siege in which it was decreed to be soon after the declaration of the late war, the city has in addition to the officials above mentioned a military governor. - Paris is the financial and commercial centre of France; and its importance in this respect, in a country so centralized, is not exceeded by that of any capital, unless perhaps by London. Here are the bank of France, which has branches in the departments and in Algiers, and has the exclusive privilege of issuing bank notes in France; the other principal financial institutions of the country; and the administrations of the five great railways, which with their numerous branches cover France with a network of iron.

In 1867 (a somewhat exceptional year) there were 31,308 arrivals of canal boats and other vessels at Paris, gauging an aggregate of 3,689,881 tons, or as much as the tonnage of the five principal seaports of France. All edibles, potables, and combustibles, building materials, and some other classes of merchandise, pay on entering the city an octroi or customs .duty, which is collected at an expense of less than 5 per cent, of the total receipts. The city budget for 1873 presents the following among other figures: Receipts, 197,815,582 francs; expenditures, 197,080,082. The chief item of receipts is octroi, 102,286,000 francs. The principal expenditures were: interest on debt and sinking fund, 46,170,825; cost of tax collecting, salaries, etc, 8,420,000; primary schools, 5,966,000; public assistance (charities), 22,346,000; promenades and works of art, 3,267,000; repairs of public buildings, 1,703,000; new public works, 24,512,000; prefecture of police, 15,462,000; lighting streets, 3,917,000. The latest trustworthy statistics of the industrial condition of Paris are those obtained by the inquiry instituted by the chamber of commerce in 1860. Between that time and 1870 there was an increasing activity; but this again received a check by the war and the commune, from which in some departments of business, especially in that of building and its connected group of trades, it is slow to recover; meantime the rate of wages has followed at an interval the rise in the cost of living.

The following table of the principal trades arranged by groups is still worth regarding:

INDUSTRIES CONNECTED WITH

No. of establishments.

No. of hands.

Value in francs of yearly production.

Food......................

29,069

38,859

1,087,904,307

Building...................

5,378

71,242

315.266,477

Furniture......

7,391

37.951

199,825,948

Clothing....................

23,800

78,877

454,538,168

Spinning and weaving......

2,836

26,810

119.998,751

Ordinary metals............

3,440

28,866

163,852,428

Precious metals............

3.199

18,731

183.390,553

Chemicals and ceramics.....

2,719

14,397

193,616.849

Printing, engrav'g, paper, etc.

2,759

19,507

94,166,528

Clocks and watchwork, musical, mathematical, and other "instruments of precision".............

20,580

82,071

66.040,233

Furs and leather...........

100.8S1,795

Carriages and saddlery.....

98.849,195

Cooperage........

27.075,323

Fancy articles (articles de Paris)...................

127.546,540

Sundry,ungrouped..

141,140,294

Total..........

101,171

416,811

8,869,092,949

Of the 416,811 hands employed, 285,862 were men, 105,410 women over 16 years of age, 19,059 boys, and 6,481 girls. Of the men, 1,588 earned less than 1 franc daily, 18,266 from 1 to 2 francs, 44,226 from 2 to 3, 82,337 from 3 to 4, 98,527 from 4 to 5, 30,757 from 5 to 6, 14,186 from 6 to 10; 221 earned 11 francs; 380, 12; 216, 15; and 57, 20. Of the women, 17,203 earned less than 1£ francs, 49,176 from l 1/4to 2, 35,239 from 2 to 3, 3,925 from 3 to 4, and 767 from 4 to 10. The value of exports from Paris to foreign countries in 1861 was 347,349,098 francs. The chief receiving countries were: the United States, 81,024,729 fr.; Great Britain, 34,750,393; Russia, 23,119,924; Spain, 17,763,921; Switzerland, 13,409,138; Italy, 12,613,720; Germany (exclusive of Prussia and Austria), 9,032,930; Belgium, 6,630,-484; all other countries, 13,942,230. The exports from Paris to the United States have of late increased very rapidly. For several recent years their amount has been as follows: 1864, $16,469,000; 1865, $27,824,000; 1866, $36,-123,000; 1867, $29,998,000; 1868, $26,295,000; 1869, $30,103,000; 1870, $26,696,000; 1871, $25,975,000; 1872, $38,680,000. Paris is celebrated for its jewelry and other goldsmith's work, watches and ornamental bronzes; its boots, shoes, and gloves; its pianofortes, paper hangings, perfumery, artificial flowers, articles of female dress, and military equipments.

Its mathematical, optical, and surgical instruments have a deservedly wide reputation for beauty and accuracy. The products of the Gobelins manufactory of tapestry and carpets do not enter into commerce. The manufactory belongs to government, and like the porcelain factory at Sevres is not a rival of, but a beneficial model and pioneer experimenter for private enterprises. The government tobacco factory in Paris furnishes about one fifth of the snuff, cigars, and smoking tobacco consumed in France. Among the most interesting establishments organized and directly controlled by the municipal administration are the great central markets (halles centrales), consisting of 12 great pavilions or halls of iron and glass, covering a space of 87,790 square mitres, and divided into stalls, etc, somewhat in the manner of our own markets. Each pavilion is devoted to the sale of some special class of provisions, and all are connected and traversed by passages and streets, all under cover, the whole forming as it were a small covered city. The halles are at the S. E. end of the rue Mont-martre, near the boulevard de Sebastopol. Underneath the pavilions are great vaults, where there are tanks for live fish, storage places for vegetables, etc.

These vaults are connected with the railway termini by underground railways, by which the provisions arrive at the markets, and the garbage and refuse are carried away. The following statistics of the sale of articles of food at these markets during 1874 are interesting as affording some means of judging of the city's consumption, as they supply the greater part of the capital. At the pavilion specially reserved for the sale of meat more than 15,-400,000 lbs. of beef, 8,800,000 of mutton, 19,-800,000 of veal, and 5,500,000 of pork, forming in all a total of nearly 27,000 tons, were disposed of; while for poultry and game the figures are: chickens and capons, 3,226,885; rabbits, 1,281,017; pigeons, 1,593,347; larks, 1,774,628; hares, 161,103; partridges, 405,281; deer, 7,014. The number of eggs sold reached the total of 213,500,000, and the weight of fresh and salt butter is estimated at 11,000 tons. The sale of fish has increased immensely within 25 years, for while only 138,600 lbs. were brought to the central markets in 1850, the total for 1874 is 50,600,000, an eighth of which was made up of fresh-water fish.

The octroi duty upon oysters has risen from 800 francs in 1848 to 12,000, the tax paid upon the 12,000,000 oysters consumed by the Parisians in 1874. The vegetables and fruit disposed of weighed more than 6,000 tons. - The earliest historic mention of Paris is by Julius Csesar. On an island in the Seine he found a town of huts, the stronghold of one of the 64 confederate Gallic tribes. Much ingenious conjecture has failed to clear away the obscurity that involves the etymology of its name Lutetia, and the origin of its inhabitants, the Parisii. The former may be a Latinized corruption of three Celtic words, luth, thoneze, y, or of two, louton Tiesi, signifying a dwelling in the waters; and the latter are supposed to be an offshoot of the Belgse. They were a fierce race of hunters and warriors. They burned their town rather than yield it to invaders in 52 B. C. When physical resistance was finally overcome, they were slow to accept Roman laws and customs. The local genius was early manifest in opposition to imposed authority. An insurrection broke out in A. D. 286, the two leaders of which, upborne on shields, were proclaimed emperors by the people assembled near the present site of the hotel de ville.

Between 358 and 360 the future emperor Julian, who retired here to winter quarters, and in the Misopogon has recorded his affection for " dear Lutetia," confirmed old rights and granted new privileges to the town, which rose to the dignity of a city and took the name of Parisii. For centuries it was the residence of a Roman prefect. Its commerce, at first principally carried on by the river, was in the hands of a trading company, the Nautm Parisian, which, existing as early as the reign of Tiberius, long outlived the Roman domination, contained the germs of the future municipal government, and has left in the city arms of to-day its symbolic mark, a galley with oars and sails, and the motto Fluctuat nee mergitur. The palais des thermes, some remains of which are still to be seen, was occupied by several Roman emperors, who made Paris their headquarters while their legions were striving to repel the irruptions of the barbarians. As the vitality of the overgrown empire grew faint and fainter in its extreme members, Paris suffered greatly from these irruptions.

In 451 it was saved from Attila's invasion only by the courage and wisdom of St. Genevieve, and in 464 was stormed by Childeric L, king of the Franks. His son Olovis made Paris his residence, embraced Christianity, and built a church dedicated to St. Peter and St. Paul, which was afterward placed under the invocation of his wife's friend St. Genevieve, who died in his reign, and remains to this day the patron saint of the city. He broke the last weakened bonds of Roman domination, and Paris became independently Frank. While under his feeble successors of the Merovingian dynasty Roman civilization was fading away, the church rose to wealth and power. According to the legend, Christianity was first preached in Paris in the middle of the 3d century by St. Denis, to the place and manner of whose death some writers attribute the origin of the name of Mont-martre, which other etymologists deduce from a heathen temple of Mars that once stood on that hill. A chapel dedicated to the true God and St. Stephen was erected in the reign of Valentinian I., on the site of an earlier altar to Jupiter now covered by the cathedral of Notre Dame. The Carlovingian monarchs, like their predecessors of the Merovingian line, rarely inhabited Paris. Doubtful legend and conjecture ascribe to Charlemagne the merit of originating the university of Paris. The Normans repeatedly attacked the city in the 9th century.

The Parisians finally appealed for aid to Eudes or Otto, count of Paris, whom, after he had repelled the invaders, they proclaimed king in 885. His successor 100 years later, of his blood but not his direct heir, was Hugues or Hugh Capet, the first king of France properly so called, from whom directly or indirectly descended all French monarchs down to Louis XVI. Paris now increased in honors, privileges, wealth, influence, and population. Her schools, illustrated by such teachers as Peter Lombard and Abelard, were resorted to by the youth of all Europe. The powerful order of the templars erected a fortress on the ground where the Marche du Temple, with its 2,000 dealers in old clothes and in every other conceivable second-hand article of economy - one of the most curious of the curiosities of modern Paris - now stands. The foundations of the cathedral of Notre Dame were laid. Philip Augustus (1180-1223) recognized the university as a corporation, and granted to its officers a jurisdiction independent of the royal courts, over the quarter of the city to which it gave its name.

He caused a new wall to be built about the town enclosing 625 acres; by a formal act he gave all the refuse straw of the royal apartments for the benefit of the patients of the Maison-Dieu; he established two covered markets, and even ordered pavements for the streets. Louis IX. greatly promoted the welfare of Paris by important reforms of customs, laws, and police, and by establishing many commercial, religious, and beneficent institutions, among which last were a hospital for the blind and a school of surgery. His chaplain, Robert de Sorbon, founded in 1250 a school of theology, the origin of the famous Sorbonne, in the quarter of the university still known as the quartier Latin or Pays Latin. "While King John, taken prisoner by the Black Prince, was held captive in England, the city was governed for a time by Etienne Marcel, the provost of the merchants, independently of the general state. For centuries before as for centuries after the brief reign of this popular leader, Paris was often disturbed by insurrections and popular tumults, and fierce quarrels between great lords and the king, or among themselves, with bloody fights and judicial massacres; its streets, despite royal reforms and new regulations of police in frequent succession, were until modern times unsafe for honest citizens after nightfall.

Under Philip IV. there were brilliant publio fetes, for which Paris seems thus early to have been distinguished, and "mysteries" were performed on stages set up in the open air, the first dramatic representations in Paris. Charles V. built a new palace, then called the hostel de St. Pol, afterward famous in history, with change of destination and name, as the Bastile. (See Bastile.) The basement only of most private houses in those days was of stone; on this rested one or more stories of timber filled between with mortar; when the proprietor's wealth permitted, the facade was covered with slates, and the projecting cornices and corner posts were adorned with carvings, representing foliage, fantastic animals, the heads of angels, and Biblical personages. Chariots and even four-wheeled carriages, and disorders of swelling luxury, excess of gambling among the rest, are spoken of in contemporary documents. The city had overgrown its old limits, and the monarch caused a new fortified wall to be built, enclosing now 1,084 acres, to protect it against the incursions of the English; who, however, at the end of the reign of his insane successor, marked in the annals of the city by pest, famine, and all the horrors of bloody faction, entered Paris amid Te Deum chants and great fetes, and proclaimed Henry of Lancaster king of France and England. The enthusiasm of the occasion was only surpassed by that which greeted the entrance of Charles VII. after the expulsion of the English in 1436. About this date Greek was first taught in the university, which then numbered 25,000 students.

In 1438 there were 5,000 deaths at the Hotel-Dieu, and in all the city 45,000; wolves prowled through its streets, desolated by war, plague, and famine. In 1466 malefactors and vagabonds of all countries were invited to fill up the broken ranks of its population, which numbered 300,000 souls before 1483, the close of the reign of Louis XI. This astute ruler favored trade and commerce of all kinds, protected against violent opposition the new art of printing and its connected industries, confirmed the privileges of the citizens, endowed the capital with its first special school of medicine, favored the first attempt at lighting its streets, and inaugurated the first rude postal system, putting it in communication with all parts of France. Under Francis I. (1515-'47) the advance of Paris in material prosperity, in arts and letters, in the refinements and in the vices of civilization, received a fresh impulse. The castle of the Louvre, begun by Dagobert and repeatedly enlarged and strengthened by succeeding monarchs, was swept away, and the palace of the old Louvre begun upon its site; the h6tel de ville was commenced, new streets were opened, old quarters rebuilt, and a royal free college founded.

The origin of the chateau and gardens of the Tuileries, the endowment of the college of Ste. Barbe, now one of the first high schools of Paris, and the effective constitution of what is now the national library, date from the reign of Henry II., in despite of whom a Protestant church also was established. The disasters of the so-called wars of religion, culminating in the horrors of the St. Bartholomew massacre, fell heavily upon Paris, barring its progress in all directions. It revived under the rule of Henry IV., whose accession it had desperately resisted. The palaces of the Tuileries and the Louvre were greatly enlarged, the place Royale formed, and the pont Neuf built. Under the reign of Louis XIII., or rather of his minister Richelieu, the Palais Cardinal, now Palais Royal, was begun. The Luxembourg palace, several fine quays and bridges, and numerous magnificent private hotels in the faubourg St. Germain, date from this period; as do also the French academy, the jardin des plantes, and the college that afterward took the name of Louis-le-Grand. More than 80 new streets were laid out and many of the old ones improved in the long reign of Louis XIV., from which date also the academies, with the exception of the French academy, the observatory, the opera, and the Comedie Francaise, the Hotel des Invalides, the eastern colonnade of the Louvre, the triumphal arches of St. Denis and St. Martin built on the site of ancient city gates, the laying out of the boulevards as promenades, the planting of the Champs Ely sees, the enlargement of the Tuileries and the arrangement of its gardens nearly as they now are, the forming of the place Vendome and the place des Victoires, 33 churches, a foundling hospital, the hospice of the Salpetriere, the Gobelins tapestry manufactory, the first city post, the lighting of the thoroughfares with "lanterns placed from distance to distance " (which was commemorated by a medal bearing the legend, Urbis securitas et nitor\ the rudiments of the modern omnibus (an unsuccessful invention of Blaise Pascal, in the shape of seven coaches in which "even women took their places," for five sous, but from which soldiers and all persons in livery were excluded), and finally, to close the imperfect catalogue of innovations, the first coffee house in Paris. At the accession of Louis XV. Paris occupied a space of 2,809 acres, and counted 500 grand thoroughfares, 9 faubourgs, 100 squares and open places, 9 bridges, 22,000 private houses, of which 4,000 had carriage entrances (portes-cocheres), and more than 500,-000 inhabitants.

It was the capital of science, art, literature, taste, and pleasure, not only for Prance but for Europe. During this reign the growth of the city went on in all ways. In the following reign, the duke of Orleans, better known in history as Philippe Egalite, enclosed the spacious gardens of the Palais Royal with a continuous quadrangle of uniform architecture, whose galleries, furnished with shops of every kind, and coffee rooms, gambling rooms, and wine rooms, became one brilliant bazaar. The famous orgies of the regency in the palace proper were followed by revolutionary orgies in its gardens. It was, up to the first quarter of the present century, the central stage and sink of what was brightest and foulest in Paris. In 1784 the farmers general of the city customs erected about the enlarged city an octroi or customs wall, enclosing an area of 8,708 acres, containing more than 50,000 houses, 967 lighted streets, 46 parish and 20 other churches, 11 abbeys, 133 monasteries and religious houses, 15 seminaries, 10 colleges, 26 hospitals and asylums, 60 fountains, and 12 markets.

This octroi wall formed the city boundary till Jan. 1, 1860. In the first years of the revolution many monuments of the middle ages were demolished or mutilated; the fine arts generally were neglected in the fierce struggle about more essential things; material growth was checked and the population diminished. But the ground was cleared for future improvements, and many of the institutions of which Paris to-day has best reason to boast date their origin from the revolutionary period; such are the museums of the Louvre, the bureau of longitudes, the conservatory of arts and trades, the polytechnic school, and the national industrial exhibitions held in Paris. In the political order, the revolution finally crowned a work at which the ablest monarchs and statesmen of France had for centuries been more or less consciously laboring. It swiftly swept away the last obstacle to the completing of an administrative system which, centralized at Paris, extends its sovereign control to the remotest corner of the land, vivifying and strengthening perhaps the nation by unity of impulse, but crippling the power and weakening the spirit of individual action in equal proportion, and unduly subordinating the country at large to metropolitan influence.

Napoleon I. expended more than 100,000,000 francs, when money for such purposes was of far greater productive value than at present, on works of public utility and ornament, but left some of the grander of them to be finished by his successors. Under the restoration and Louis Philippe private enterprise, encouraged by peace, vied with the government in enlarging and adorning the city. An improved civil police, better drainage, paving and lighting of the streets, with increased attention to comfort and decency in domestic architecture, mark this period. During its latter part, too, the present fortifications were constructed, and the whole arrangement for the defence of Paris was thus placed upon an entirely different footing from the comparatively unprotected condition of the past. The city's material prosperity seemed but transiently dimmed at the close of the reign of Louis Philippe, though the immediate effect of the revolution of 1848 was a check upon it. But a visitation of the cholera and the insurrection of June furnished to the republican government early suggestions of the need and nature of certain changes afterward embraced in the general system of transformation carried nearly to completion under the second empire.

The republic was suppressed by the coup d'etat of Dec. 2, 1851. Its name was abolished a year later, when Louis Napoleon " closed the era of revolution," and had himself named emperor. Almost the only French monarch born and residing throughout his reign in Paris, he aimed to make of his birthplace the most salubrious, convenient, and sumptuous city of Europe, a monument of his reign and a fortress for his dynasty. The public works of this period cost the city and national treasury, exclusive of certain special appropriations, from 1852 to 1859, an average of about $2,800,000 per annum, and for the next decade about $3,600,000. In the last year of the empire it is known to have surpassed the estimates. One of the early acts of Napoleon III. was to order that to be done which Louis XIV. had contemplated, Napoleon I. had labored at, Louis Philippe had talked of, and the provisional government had decreed, namely, the clearing away of the intervening huddle of old houses and the connecting of the Louvre with the Tuileries. While this work of demolition and monumental construction was in progress, the palace of industry and the palatial central markets were built; the rue de Eivoli was extended for miles through a labyrinth of dark streets; much of the present great system of sewers was constructed; a great number of new streets, parks, places, etc, were laid out; and a large majority of those works mentioned in the earlier part of this article, as contributing to the present beauty and convenience of the city, were planned and executed.

Meantime the efforts of individual and associated private capital, credit, and feverish speculation kept pace with their imperial progress. Of all the houses of Paris in 1870, less than one third had been built prior to 1852. The returning visitor might traverse broad thoroughfares for miles together, and, except for here and there a glimpse of a spared monument, hardly meet with a reminder of the places he knew 25 years before. Little remains of what was then still left of old Paris: its crooked streets, close and dark, with their quaint gables, and storied fronts and corner towerets, so rich in historical associations and foul flavors, so picturesque, so favorable to popular emeutes and epidemic maladies. In 1860 the octroi wall was demolished, and the suburban towns and villages grouped around it were annexed to Paris, which took for its boundary the fortifications. The prosperity of Paris seemed at its height; the luxury of its shops, promenades, theatres, saloons, and court outshone those of all other European capitals; the general government, of which the city administration was a branch, was deemed by throngs of admiring strangers perfection in its solidity as in other respects, when the declaration of war in July, 1870, suddenly changed the aspect of affairs.

On Sept. 4 the empire fell without a drop of blood shed in its defence by its late beneficiaries. The alarmed empress fled to England; and the rapid progress of the war (see France) soon brought the advancing German army within a short distance of the city, where the most energetic measures were in progress for defence. On Sept. 19 a sortie under Gen. Ducrot proved fruitless as a means of hindering the advance, and his troops were driven back. In the two weeks following, the investment of Paris by the German armies was made complete. The forces of the besieged at the time of the investment were, according to the Journal Officiel, as follows: the 13th and 14th corps of the line, in round numbers 50,000 men, under Gens. Vinoy and Renault; a corps of government and railway employees and volunteers, and a body of cavalry, in all about 30,000, under Ducrot; 100,000 men of the garde mobile and 10,000 marines, under various commanders; 60 old and 194 new battalions of the national guard; grand total, about 400,000 men. Gen. Trochu, president of the government of the national defence, was commandant of the city.

The forces of the besiegers, and their arrangement about the city, were as follows: the "third army" (5th, 6th, and 11th Prussian corps, two Bavarian and two Wurtemberg corps), under the crown prince of Prussia, embraced the S. and S. E. front from Sevres to the Marne; and the "army of the Meuse" (12th Saxon and two Prussian corps), under the crown prince (now king) of Saxony, embraced the N. and N. E. front; the whole besieging force numbering about 220,000 men. On Sept. 20 the Prussian crown prince, and on Oct. 5 the king, took up their headquarters at Versailles; those of the Saxon crown prince were at Grand Tremblay. From Sept. 20 the lines of the Germans were constantly drawn more and more closely about Paris, and the siege from their side presents little more than the regular progress of military operations, hardly interrupted until their successful end. Its history from the side of the besieged, however, is entirely different. Every expedient for breaking the lines of the besiegers was debated; and desperate but unsuccessful sorties were made on Sept. 30 (Gen. Vinoy with 10,000 men in the direction of Choisy), Oct. 13 (reconnoissance under Trochu toward Chatillon), Oct. 21 (Gens. Noel and others toward Bougival, Malmaison, &c), Oct. 28 (the French capturing Le Bourget, which was recaptured after a violent conflict on the 30th), Nov. 2ft and 30 (fighting at Mont-Mesly, Ohampigny, Villiers, and Brie, all of which were taken by the French and retaken by the Germans within a few days), and Dec. 21 (Trochu toward Le Bourget). On Dec. 27, at 7 1/2 A. M., the Germans, who had finally decided upon and prepared for this measure, began a vigorous bombardment of the city, directing it first of all against the forts on the E. side, the fire of which was practically silenced by Jan. 1. On the 5th of that month the bombardment of the southern forts was begun, and on that day, too, the first shells fell in the city itself, in the Luxembourg gardens.

On the 13th, 14th, and 15th the French made further unsuccessful sorties in various directions; and on the 19th Trochu once more undertook a grand sally from Mont Valerien and that side of the city, against the German left wing, with more than 100,000 men. An obstinate conflict followed, but the French were finally driven back with heavy loss. All hope of saving the city was now over; on the 20th Trochu resigned the governorship; and on the evening of the 23d Jules Favre appeared at Versailles to begin negotiations for the capitulation. The terms of the surrender, and the account of the German entry and subsequent events connected with it, are given in the article France; and the account of the great communistic insurrection, in which the whole history of the city until the beginning of June is' involved, is given in Commune de Paris. The suffering in the city during the two sieges was very great, that of the majority of the people being far greater during the German than during the Versaillist investment. At the moment of the former investment its population was in excess of 2,000,000, the depletion by the voluntary and forced withdrawal of many thousands of its ordinary French and foreign inhabitants being more than compensated by the influx of refugees from the neighboring region.

The military conduct of the defence is still too much matter of grave and often of passionate discussion to be authoritatively pronounced upon here. What is indisputable is, that despite a bombardment of three weeks, which was constantly increasing in intensity, Paris finally capitulated to cold and hunger. The winter was unusually severe. In the latter period of the siege the daily rations, purchasable of butchers and bakers only on presentation of a personal certificate, were for an adult about two ounces of horse flesh and less than three-quarters of a pound of bread composed of one part wheat and two parts of whatever else could be got. There was no fixed scale of prices for other articles in the desolate markets; but the following "quotations" in francs for the third week in January, rather moderate than exaggerated, are historically accurate: a chicken, 40 francs; a rabbit, 50;' a good onion, 1/2, very fine, 1; a turkey, 150; a goose, 140; a cat, 12 to 18; dog, 3 1/2 a pound. Eat, cat, and dog butcher shops were not uncommon. Elephant, while it lasted, was 40 francs a pound for choice pieces. Wood, green and very scarce, cost from 7 to 10 francs the 100 lbs.; charcoal was nearly and stone coal quite unobtainable.

All that kept these prices from rising still higher was, that they were already out of reach of the empty or thin purses of the larger part of the two millions. The number of deaths during the 19 weeks of investment and the four weeks next following, i. e., from Sept. 18, 1870, to Feb. 24, 1871, was 64,154. The number of deaths in the corresponding period of the preceding twelvemonth was 21,978. The highest weekly bill of mortality was 4,761. A partial communication with the outer world was maintained by balloons and carrier pigeons. Of 62 postal balloons sent out, bearing in all 159 persons and 18,000 lbs. of written and printed matter, only seven fell into the hands of the enemy, two are supposed to have been borne out by wind currents and lost at sea, and one landed in Norway. The return post by carrier pigeons, consisting of brief despatches microscopically reduced by photographic process, was scanty and precarious. Of 85 post-office messengers attempting to pass the lines, only eight succeeded in getting out, and only three in entering.

There was one fortnight in which no news of any description reached the city from without. (See Aeronautics.) Among the public buildings burned during the commune insurrection were the prefecture of police, grenier d'abondance, ministry of finances, hotel de ville, the palaces of the council of state, Tuileries, and legion of honor, and the Palais Royal. The last two have been restored. The column of the place VendSme, which was thrown down just before the week of blood, has been reconstructed. Several public libraries, of which the most important were those of the Louvre and of the hotel de ville, and many valuable works of art, were also burned. The insurrection of March, following on the revolution of September, confirmed a majority of the national assembly in their fear of Paris, which, after being the seat of every successively sitting and unseated government, from that of Louis XVI. to that of Louis Napoleon, is now (by the constitutional enactments of February, 1875) legally decapitalized in favor of Versailles, where the national assembly has held its sessions and the chief of state has had his ordinary official residence since the peace with the Germans. The ministries, however, remain in Paris, and the administrative machinery which controls the affairs of the country is still worked from its old centre.

In 1873 the municipal authorities resolved to undertake several great schemes of improvement and public works, for which 7,000,000 francs were appropriated in June of that year, and large sums have since been added. These designs involve the lengthening of many of the present important avenues and streets, and the laying out of a large number of new ones; the rebuilding of the Tuileries, hotel de ville, and other edifices; improvements in the fortifications, etc. Most of these works are now in progress. The principal recent event in connection with the great edifices of Paris has been the opening of the grand opera house, which took place with much ceremony and success on Jan. 5, 1875.

Paris #1

Paris, also called Alexander, a Trojan prince, second son of Priam and Hecuba. His mother having dreamed during pregnancy that she brought forth a flaming torch which set fire to the city, he was immediately after his birth exposed on Mt. Ida, where a 'she bear suckled him for five days. A shepherd then took him home and brought him up as his own child. He grew up handsome, accomplished, and valiant, and when a dispute arose between Juno, Minerva, and Venus for the golden apple inscribed " To the fairest," which Eris (Strife) threw among the assembled divinities, Paris was selected by Jupiter to decide the quarrel. He awarded the prize of beauty to Venus, who promised him in return the fairest of Women for his wife. Afterward the secret of his parentage was declared by his sister, the prophetess Cassandra, and he was received by Priam as his son. Hearing of the surpassing charms of Helen, the wife of Mene-laus, king of Sparta, he sailed to Greece with a fleet, and, aided by Venus, carried her off to Troy. This led to the siege of Troy, in which Paris showed little of his accustomed courage, but he twice met Menelaus in conflict; once he fled, and again he was defeated, but was borne away by Venus. According to one account he killed Achilles. Being wounded by Phyloctetes with an arrow of Hercules, Paris repaired to his long deserted wife (Enone, whom he had married before the abduction of Helen; but she refused to heal him, and he returned to Troy. (Enone repented and followed him with remedies, but being too late killed herself in despair.