Pasquier Quesnel, a French theologian, born in Paris, July 14, 1634, died in Amsterdam, Dec. 2, 1719. He studied in the Sorbonne, became a member of the French congregation of the Oratory in 1657, and was appointed superior of the house of his order in Paris. Having imbibed the doctrines of the Port Royal theologians, he began to publish them in a series of moral commentaries on the gospel for the use of young Oratorians. The first volume appeared in 1671, entitled Réflexions morales sur le Nouveau Testament: He next published an edition of St. Leo the Great (4 vols. 4to, 1672), containing notes and commentaries favorable to Jansenism, followed by a commentary on the Acts of the Apostles and the Epistles, which was the continuation of the Réflexions morales. In 1681 he was banished to Orleans. Refusing to sign a theological formulary imposed on the Oratorians, he left the order in 1684, joined Arnauld in Brussels, and there published in 1694 a complete edition of his Réflexions morales. The angry controversies to which this book gave rise in France and the Low Countries caused Quesnel to be imprisoned by the Spanish authorities, but he escaped and found refuge in Amsterdam. The work was condemned by Clement XL, July 13, 1708, and still more solemnly in the famous bull Unigenitus, Sept. 8, 1713. Among Quesnel's other important works are: Abrégé de la morale de l'Évangile (3 vols., 1687); Tradition de l'Église romaine sur la prédestination des saints et sur la grâce efficace, under the pseu-donyme of Sieur Germain (4 vols., Cologne, 1687); Discipline de l'Église tirée du Nou-veau Testament et de quelques anciens con-ciles (2 vols., Lyons, 1689); Histoire abrégée de la vie d'Antoine Arnauld (2 vols., Liége, 1699); Justification de M. Arnauld (3 vols., 1702); La souveraineté des rois défendue con-tre Leydeker (Paris, 1704); Recueil de lettres spirituelles (3 vols., 1721). There are several English translations of the Réflexions morales.