Paul, the name of five popes, of whom the most important are the following.

I. Paul III. (Alessandro Faenese)

Paul III. (Alessandro Faenese), born at Canino, Feb. 28, 1468, died in Rome, Nov. 10, 1549. Having completed his studies in Florence, he filled several important offices, was made cardinal in September, 1493, bishop of Parma by Julius II., and bishop of Frascati by Leo X. He was elected pope on Oct. 13, 1534. In 1535 he excommunicated Henry VIII., citing him to appear in Rome within 90 days; and in 1538 he confirmed the excommunication. He summoned, June 2,1536, a general council to meet at Mantua, but transferred it successively to Vicenza and Trent, where the first session was held in December, 1545. He made an abortive league with the emperor and the republic of Venice against the Turks, and induced Francis I. and Charles V. to conclude a truce for ten years at Nice (1538), which however was not observed. He established the inquisition at Naples, approved the society of Jesus, sent a contingent of 12,000 foot and 1,000 horse to join the emperor's forces in Germany against the Protestants, and opposed the religious pacification called the Interim granted by Charles V. in 1547. He exerted himself zealously to subdue the turbulent feudatories of the Papal States, and expelled the powerful Colonna family from Rome. Before becoming a priest he had a son and a daughter, the former of whom was created duke of Parma and Piacenza.

II. Paul IV. (Giovanni Pietro Caraffa)

Paul IV. (Giovanni Pietro Caraffa), born at Capriglia, kingdom of Naples, June 28, 1476, died in Rome, Aug. 18, 1559. He was proficient in the Scriptures and the oriental languages, became archbishop of Chieti in 1505, was sent to England by Julius II. to collect the "Peter's pence," founded with St. Cajetan the order of Theatines in 1524, and was created cardinal on Dec. 22, 1536. He was appointed archbishop of Naples on Dec. 15, 1549, and on May 23, 1555, was elected pope in spite of the opposition of Spain. He displayed an energy in his administration which had not been expected from his advanced age and previous studious habits. He concluded an alliance with Henry II. of France against the emperor Charles V. (December, 1555), and afterward against Philip II., in consequence of which his dominions were invaded by the duke of Alva, and the Spanish troops advanced almost to the gates of Rome. A peace was concluded in 1557. The emperor Ferdinand I. having accepted the throne without consulting the holy see, the pope dismissed the imperial ambassador, and Ferdinand did not come to Rome to be crowned, an example which was imitated by all the succeeding emperors.

Paul IV. was determined in his hostility to the Protestants, against whom he issued a bull in 1559, and cooperated earnestly with Queen Mary in her attempts to restore Catholicism in England. He introduced the inquisition into his dominions, and labored assiduously for the reformation of the clergy. He raised his nephews to the highest honors in the state, and made one of them a cardinal, though he had been a soldier and a libertine; but hearing that they abused their power, he banished them from Kome in 1559. He was hated by his subjects, who rose in tumult on the news of his death, and threw down his statue, crying: "Death to the Caraffas."

III. Paul V. (Ca-Millo Borghese)

Paul V. (Ca-Millo Borghese), born in Rome, Sept. 17, 1552, died there, Jan. 28, 1621. He succeeded Leo XI. in 1605, and soon after his accession was involved in a dispute with the republic of Venice respecting the foundation of religious houses, the alienation of charitable bequests, and the trial of ecclesiastics by lay tribunals. He excommunicated the doge and the senate, and laid the republic under an interdict, which the senate forbade to be published, and which only the Jesuits, Theatines, and Capuchins observed. These three orders were consequently banished. The dispute was settled through the mediation of Henry IV. in 1607. Paul devoted himself with great zeal to reforming the administration of his temporal government, embellishing Rome, and restoring ancient monuments. He sent missionaries to the East, and received embassies from Japan, from several princes of India, and from Congo.