I. A S. E. County Of Nebraska

A S. E. County Of Nebraska, bordering on Kansas; area, 432 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 4,171. The Atchison and Nebraska railroad crosses the N. E. corner. The surface is diversified; the soil, particularly along the streams, is fertile. The N. part is rocky, and there are quarries of limestone and beds of bituminous coal. The chief productions in 1870 were 123,249 bushels of wheat, 232,720 of Indian corn, 74,431 of oats, 39,577 of potatoes, 75,187 lbs. of butter, and 8,709 tons of hay. There were 1,642 horses, 1,660 milch cows, 2,778 other cattle, 847 sheep, and 2,615 swine. Capital, Pawnee City. D. A S. W. county of Kansas, intersected by the Arkansas river and its Pawnee fork; area, 900 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 179. It is traversed by the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe railroad. The surface consists of rolling prairies, with a fertile soil. Capital, Larned.

Pawnees #1

Pawnees, a warlike tribe of American Indians, long resident in Nebraska on the Platte and its tributaries, with occasional sojourns on the Kansas. They were first heard of through the Illinois, and the name is of that language. Marquette noted several bands on his map in 1673. They have long been divided into four bands: Tsawe (Grand Pawnees), Tskitkakish or Kattahawkees (Republican Pawnees), Pe-towera or Tapahowerats (Tapage Pawnees), and the Skere (Pawnee Mahas or Loups). They were constantly at war with the Sioux and Other nations, and, fyeing considered irreclaimable savages, were permitted to be held as slaves in Canada when bought from other tribes; wherefore any Indian held in bondage was called a Pani. They were hostile to the Spaniards before and after the cession of Louisiana to the United States, but have always been friendly to the Americans. They lived in villages of earth-covered lodges, cultivating a little corn, beans, melons, etc, but going off regularly to the buffalo plains. They shaved the head except the scalp lock; the women were decently dressed.

From time to time they sacrificed prisoners to the sun to obtain good crops, but this was finally stopped among the Skere, who continued it latest, by the courage of Petalesharoo about 1820. Among their sports was a peculiar one of hurling a javelin through a ring sent rolling along the ground. Pike in 1806 estimated the population of three villages at 6,223, with nearly 2,000 warriors, expert horsemen, with some firearms. They fought fiercely with the Tetans, Arapahoes, and Kiowas, as well as with the Sacs and Foxes. The removal of the Delawares to lands between the Platte and the Kansas led to war with that tribe, who in 1832 burned the Great Pawnee village on Republican fork. Smallpox soon after carried off a large part of the tribe. By treaty of Oct. 9, 1833, they sold lands south of the Nebraska and agreed to remain north of that river and west of Loup fork. Provision was then made for education, and they were soon possessed of comfortable houses, good farms, and schools; but all this was checked by the Sioux, who attacked them in their hunts, killing many, and finally invaded their villages, burning houses, killing and ravaging.

The Pawnees were driven south of the Nebraska, and regarding this as a violation of their treaty, government stopped their annuities; their missionaries and farmers left them, cholera set in, and in three or four years they lost half their number. By treaty of Sept. 24, 1857, they sold more of their lands, but government did not protect them from the Sioux, who year after year killed and plundered them, repeatedly destroying their villages. The reservation of 288,000 acres was 105 m. west of Omaha, in the valley of the Loup fork of the Platte. In 1861 they numbered 3,414, and furnished government with an efficient company of scouts, and a still larger force to act against the Sioux during the war with that tribe. This increased the hostility of the Sioux, who after making peace with government turned again on the wretched Pawnees, slaughtering them without mercy and effectually preventing any progress or improvement. By act of June 10, 1872, 48,424 acres were sold for their benefit, and they began to think of removal, especially after their crops were swept away by the locusts. On Oct. 8, 1874, the Pawnees in general council determined to remove.

They are under the charge of the Friends, and have a perpetual annuity of $30,-000, with appropriations for education, farming, etc, of $22,600 more. In 1874 they had a manual labor school and a day school with 156 pupils, but their individual wealth, chiefly in horses, is very small. There is no grammar or extended vocabulary of their language.