Pedro I (de Aloantara) of Brazil, and IV. of Portugal, born in the palace of Queluz, near Lisbon, Oct. 12, 1798, died there, Sept. 24, 1834. On the invasion of Portugal by the French in 1807, the royal family fled to Brazil, which was raised to the rank of a kingdom in 1815. After the death of the queen Dona Maria I. the father of Dom Pedro became king of Portugal under the title of John VI., and in 1821 returned to that country, leaving his son as regent of Brazil. When the Portuguese cortes adopted measures reducing Brazil again to the rank of a colony, a revolution took place, and Dom Pedro, placing himself at the head of the movement, was proclaimed protector and perpetual defender of Brazil; and the country being declared independent in October, 1822, he was proclaimed constitutional emperor, and on Dec. 1 was crowned. In 1826, the sovereignty of the province Cisplatina (Banda Oriental) being disputed between Brazil and Buenos Ayres, Dom Pedro declared war against the latter, which terminated unfavorably to his interests.
His father dying in 1826, he became king of Portugal, but immediately abdicated in favor of his infant daughter, Dona Maria da Gloria; and a popular tumult in Rio de Janeiro compelled him to abdicate in favor of his son, April 7,1831, and to return to Portugal, during the usurpation of Dom Miguel. He landed at the island of Terceira, one of the Azores, issued a decree in favor of Dona Maria and began a war which terminated successfully in 1834. (See Miguel.) Dom Pedro was appointed regent during his daughter's minority, but he died before it expired. In 1833 he had been excommunicated by the pope for confiscating monastic property in Portugal.