Pedro II (de Aloantara), emperor of Brazil, son of the preceding, born in Rio de Janeiro, Dec. 2, 1825. In his sixth year his father abdicated the crown in his favor. During his minority the country was distracted by rival factions; and at length, when Pedro II. was 14 years of age, a bill was passed in the chamber of deputies declaring his majority. Having been declared to have attained his majority, he was crowned July 18,1841. The disturbed state of the country still continued. Several of the provinces were in arms; in that of Sao Paulo order was Gen. Caxias; but the war was prolonged in the province of Minas Geraes until the decisive victory of the royalists at San Lucia in 1842. Subsequently the emperor joined with Uruguay against the Argentine dictator Rosas, who was finally overthrown in 1852. Eor the subsequent events of his reign, see Brazil. From August, 1871, to March, 1872, Dom Pedro left the empire under the regency of his daughter, the princess Isabella, and made an extended tour on the continent and in England. Under his rule Brazil is steadily increasing in power, the government has been consolidated, the finances are in a good condition, railways have been built, immigration has been encouraged, slavery abolished, and internal improvements actively carried on.

Dom Pedro possesses remarkable literary and scientific acquirements and a liberal turn of mind, and enjoys the enthusiastic affection of his subjects. In March, 1875, he was elected a corresponding member of the French academy of sciences. On Sept. 4, 1843, he married the princess Theresa Christina Maria, daughter of Francis I., king of the Two Sicilies. He has one surviving child, the princess Isabella, born July 29, 1846, and married, Oct. 15, 1864, to Louis, count d'Eu, son of the duke of Nemours.